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Types and Tokens
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Types and Tokens: On Abstract Objects

Linda Wetzel


There is a widely recognized but infrequently discussed distinction between the spatiotemporal furniture of the world (tokens) and the types of which they are instances. Words come in both types and tokens — for example, there is only one word type “the,” but there are numerous tokens of it on this page — as do symphonies, bears, chess games, and many other types of things. This book examines the distinction between types and tokens and argues that types exist, even as abstract objects since they lack a unique spatiotemporal location. It demonstrates the ubiquity of references to (and quantifi ... More

Keywords: spatiotemporal location, tokens, abstract objects, epistemological arguments, words, realism, sentence, expressions, flags, stars and stripes

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2009 Print ISBN-13: 9780262013017
Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: August 2013 DOI:10.7551/mitpress/9780262013017.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Linda Wetzel, author

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