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Rethinking ViolenceStates and Non-State Actors in Conflict$
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Erica Chenoweth and Adria Lawrence

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780262014205

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: August 2013

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262014205.001.0001

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The Turn to Violence in Self-Determination Struggles in Chechnya and Punjab

The Turn to Violence in Self-Determination Struggles in Chechnya and Punjab

(p.221) Chapter 9 The Turn to Violence in Self-Determination Struggles in Chechnya and Punjab
Rethinking Violence

Kristin M. Bakke

The MIT Press

This chapter studies the violence in self-determination struggles in decentralized states, particularly Chechnya’s violent conflict with Moscow and Punjab’s struggle with New Delhi. The Chechens and Sikhs are ethnic groups with histories of resisting central control. The chapter explains, in detail, the causes of violent conflict, political ties and political dependence between central and regional elites, and separatist violence in Chechnya and Punjab. President Dudayev came to power in the Chechen republic, but the failure of the negotiation process with the Yeltsin administration sparked an armed conflict. Akali Dal, representative party of the Sikhs, demanded an independent Sikh state, Khalistan, but separatist forces in Punjab did not turn violent until Operation Bluestar in 1984.

Keywords:   violent conflict, ethnic groups, political dependence, separatist violence

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