This chapter discusses and analyzes reasons why point-summing methods are not acceptable methods for electing and ranking. Points invite comparisons and not evaluations, and when they are in large numbers, there is a large difference in their meanings and uses among the voters. Summing or averaging numbers, without constituting an interval measure, is of no use, as these numbers are not drawn from a bona fide interval scale. Point-summing methods are not used in political elections because such methods that favor and penalize centrist candidates are not accepted for electing or grading political candidates. Another reason is that such methods maximize manipulability as both judges and voters can make changes easily in the final scores of any candidate or competitor. The chapter also compares point-summing methods with other traditional methods or approval voting.
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