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Majority JudgmentMeasuring, Ranking, and Electing$
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Michel Balinski and Rida Laraki

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780262015134

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: August 2013

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262015134.001.0001

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Common Language

Common Language

(p.161) 8 Common Language
Majority Judgment

Michel Balinski

Rida Laraki

The MIT Press

This chapter discusses the common languages of grading used by judges in wine, figure skating, diving, and other competitions, and their connections with scales and levels of measurement of competence and performance of a competitor or an aspiring politician. When common languages are used by experts such as juries of experts who class wines and professors grading students, they have absolute meanings. Examples of common languages, including the Mohs scale of mineral hardness, the Richter scale ML, and the Mankoski pain scale, along with four levels of measurement proposed by experimental psychologist S. S. Stevens, are also described.

Keywords:   common language, grading, judges, sports competitions, politicians, Mankoski pain scale, Richter scale

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