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Trade and PovertyWhen the Third World Fell Behind$
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Jeffrey G. Williamson

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780262015158

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: August 2013

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262015158.001.0001

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A Middle East De-industrialization Illustration: Ottoman Problems

A Middle East De-industrialization Illustration: Ottoman Problems

(p.101) 7 A Middle East De-industrialization Illustration: Ottoman Problems
Trade and Poverty

Jeffrey G. Williamson

The MIT Press

This chapter discusses Ottoman experience with its terms of trade over the century 1800 to 1913. Section 7.2 sets the stage by outlining Ottoman experience with trade policy, world transport costs, and thus with world market integration. Section 7.3 reviews the de-industrialization debate as it applies to the Ottoman empire and the rest the eastern Mediterranean. Section 7.4 assesses the Ottoman de-industrialization evidence. Section 7.5 reports the external terms of trade estimates for the Ottoman Turkish and Balkan core, for Levant in the empire’s eastern wing, and for the more autonomous Egypt. Section 7.6 reviews the neo-Ricardian model of de-industrialization, and Section 7.7 uses it to answer these questions: How much of Ottoman de-industrialization was due to falling world trade barriers such as ocean transport revolutions and European liberal trade policy? How much was due to factory-based productivity advance in Europe and to changing Ottoman competitiveness in manufacturing? How much was due to Ottoman policy and to Ottoman railroads as they opened the interior?

Keywords:   Ottoman empire, east Mediterranean, trade policy, world transport costs

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