Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Language, Music, and the BrainA Mysterious Relationship$

Michael A. Arbib

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780262018104

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: May 2015

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262018104.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM MIT PRESS SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.mitpress.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright The MIT Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in MITSO for personal use (for details see http://www.mitpress.universitypressscholarship.com/page/privacy-policy). Subscriber: null; date: 21 June 2018

(p.651) Subject Index

(p.651) Subject Index

Source:
Language, Music, and the Brain
Publisher:
The MIT Press
absolute pitch 26, 428, 443, 454, 470
in infancy 465, 466
action 3, 4, 204, 207, 208, 229, 303, 309, 310, 315, 375, 384, 397, 399, 400, 408, 413, 418, 436, 485
attribution 74–77
coordination 19, 77, 103, 159, 167, 542
recognition model 379, 388
sequencing 72, 73, 92, 101, 105, 148
action-perception cycle 4–12, 75, 207–210, 218
ADA: intelligent space 393, 395, 409–411, 413
aesthetic emotions 12, 32, 107, 128–131, 138, 211, 215, 216
affect bursts 121–124, 132–134, 137–139
affective meaning 22, 51, 214, 502
affective prosody 153, 160, 172
African Gray parrots 495, 514, 515, 545, 546
agrammatic aphasia 389
alliteration 23, 271, 278
allophony 277, 279
amusia 106, 319, 320, 334, 343, 447–449
congenital 334, 338–340, 343, 447–449
verbal 523
amygdala 26, 96, 104, 161–163, 198, 206, 212, 333, 371, 375, 406
anthropocentrism 560–562
anthropology 50, 51, 77, 331
anticipation. See expectation
anticipatory schemas 208
anxiety 14, 109, 163, 166, 189
aphasia 106, 334, 451, 486
agrammatic 389
auditory 526, 532
Broca’s 152, 245, 322, 350
nonfluent 331, 354, 454
song 524, 532
verbal 523, 524, 526
apraxia 106
arcuate fasciculus 29, 70, 106, 241, 248–250, 319, 320, 334, 345, 351, 355, 449, 452, 531, 532, 547
AreaX 523, 526–528
artificial intelligence 396–398, 402, 412
Artist, The 179
attention 6, 25, 114, 128, 173, 186, 195, 224, 309, 310, 426
neural basis of 429–432
shared 88, 89
audiovisual speech 422, 427, 437, 438
auditory agnosia 532
auditory brain areas
forebrain pathway 530, 531, 547
interspecies comparison 505–507
auditory memory 445–447
auditory processing 29, 251–253, 299, 336–339, 363, 386, 390, 425, 426, 442, 447, 459
dual-path model 381, 387
automatization 9–11
autosegmental phonology 282, 283
avian brain organization 507, 519–522
avian family phylogenetic tree 504
avian vocal learning 501, 520, 529, 530
babbling 472, 503, 511, 516, 548
basal ganglia 38, 299, 315, 316, 326, 333, 357, 359, 361, 375, 382–384, 427, 429, 444, 519, 522, 523, 526, 535
bats 504, 510, 520, 528
(p.652) BaYaka Pygmies 45–66, 457
musical socialization 54–56
spirit plays 53–59
beat 23, 142, 167, 269, 270, 292, 422, 429
deafness 449, 450
induction 299, 426, 497
perception 326, 444, 445, 468, 470
Bhaktapur Stick Dance 50–52
birdsong 20, 104, 105, 137, 274, 286, 331, 493, 494, 499–540
adaptive function of 516–519
compared to human vocal learning 501–503, 520–527
dialects 518–520
history 512–516
neural mechanisms of 519–532
Blazing Saddles 177, 178, 185, 197
bonding 96, 134, 137, 204, 219, 308, 494, 500, 546, 548, 549, 552, 557
brain-computer interface (BCI) 393, 395, 402, 411
Brain Opera, The 402
Brain Orchestra, The 410–412
brainstem 167, 212, 336, 337, 372, 383, 384, 404, 492, 503, 520, 522, 526, 532, 534, 547
Broca’s aphasia 152, 245, 322, 350
Broca’s area 28, 37, 72, 99, 100, 106, 216, 219, 241, 242, 245, 250, 313, 325, 342, 446, 451, 486, 521–524, 531, 547
Brodmann areas 28, 84–86, 147, 148, 206, 242, 309, 313, 314, 333, 345, 446, 452, 531
cadence 143, 145, 156, 157, 259, 266, 267, 291, 302, 424
caesura 285, 286
calls 484, 488, 491, 492, 510, 512, 514, 515, 527, 555
defined 502
center embedding 76
cerebellum 38, 103, 212, 299, 315, 317, 357, 359, 369, 373, 384, 406, 427, 429, 444
cerebral cortex 206, 243, 253, 361–363, 367, 368, 384, 406
cetaceans 510, 520, 555
Chariots of Fire 181–183, 186, 188, 199
chords 257, 258, 261, 266, 267, 292–294, 348, 389, 442
progression 276, 300, 325, 341
classical conditioning 212, 361, 371–373, 376, 404
cognitive maps 373–376
combinatoriality 213, 236, 542, 546
complex vocal learning 500, 501, 510–512, 517, 527, 536–538, 546
defined 509
component process model (CPM) 113–115, 117, 119, 131, 228
compositionality 47, 217, 235–238, 248, 290, 334, 407, 515, 542, 553
compositional semantics 14, 15, 20, 23, 218, 287, 490, 547, 557
computer music 360, 397, 402, 403. See also brain-computer interface (BCI)
Brain Orchestra 410
eXperience Induction Machine 411
congenital amusia 334, 338–340, 343, 447–449
congruence 173, 176, 183–190, 196
congruence association model with working narrative (CAM-WN) 173, 194–201, 227
consciousness 25, 117, 118, 187, 191, 196, 198, 204, 211, 226, 229
consonance 21, 24, 184, 187, 268, 388, 420, 434, 466
construction grammar 16, 382, 384
conversation 19, 31, 47, 67, 76–78, 121, 137, 204, 221, 242, 301, 302, 328, 439, 543, 546. See also face-to-face communication; turn-taking
musical 428, 440
cooperation 13, 25, 55, 71–74, 159, 168, 308, 478, 549, 550, 554
co-pathy 166, 167
cortical oscillations 253, 299
creativity 57, 60, 61, 63, 393, 396, 400–402, 408, 412, 413
cultural evolution 12, 15, 69, 71, 78–80, 364, 482–484, 490, 519, 556
(p.653) cultural transmission 64, 69, 169, 463, 500, 519, 537, 546, 550
dance 18, 45–49, 59, 63, 137, 204, 307, 308, 326–328, 380, 418, 419, 422, 427, 482, 496, 533, 545, 550, 558, 559
in BaYaka 55–58
in infants 474, 477
mirroring in 101–105
Stick Dance of Bhaktapur 50–52
temporal organization 325, 326
Darwinian musical protolanguage hypothesis 40, 481, 493–496
deep homology 41, 491, 501, 503–508, 527, 530, 533, 537, 547, 560–562
Denisovans 69, 71
dependency locality theory 344, 350
depression 163–166
dialects 510, 518, 519
diegesis 177, 179, 189, 190, 197
diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) 248, 250, 319, 449, 531
Dinka 283
disambiguation 36, 295, 301
disgust 12, 97, 98, 124, 126, 211
dissonance 21, 24, 162, 164, 184, 187–189, 257, 266, 388, 420, 466, 469
distributed adaptive control (DAC) 39, 211, 228, 393, 394, 397
architecture 400, 403–408
dorsal thalamic nucleus (aDLM) 520–522, 524, 527
duality of patterning 14, 15, 35, 273, 274, 285, 286
duration 271, 272, 299, 325, 326, 422, 424, 428–430, 446, 464, 468
dusp1 gene 525, 526
dyslexia 331, 530
early left anterior negativity (ELAN) 251, 252, 342, 343, 457
early right anterior negativity (ERAN) 146–149, 151, 152, 156–158, 342, 343, 369, 457
electroencephalography (EEG) 29, 114, 149, 219, 311, 328, 342, 343, 410, 430, 434–437
elephant hunt 49, 53, 558
elephants 450, 510, 520, 537
embodiment 7, 30, 394, 397, 400, 402, 403
emotion 10–14, 26, 107–140, 159, 160, 204, 205, 210, 375, 376, 390, 391, 395, 397, 418, 494, 544, 550
acoustic cues for 125, 126
aesthetic 12, 32, 107, 128–131, 138, 211, 215, 216
evolution of 108–111
music-evoked 21, 23, 109, 118, 128–130, 141, 153, 160–168, 198, 215, 390
neural correlates 162–164
regulation of 111, 118, 128, 135, 167, 476, 548
system, architecture of 111–118
tripartite emotion expression and perception (TEEP) model 119–121, 138
utilitarian 12, 32, 107, 128, 130, 138, 211, 215, 216
empathy 79, 83, 96, 97, 122, 131, 137, 166, 175, 215, 216, 221. See also co-pathy
aesthetic 222, 228
enculturation 60–63, 330, 464, 469, 470, 549
enjambment 285, 286
entrainment 215, 216, 219, 229, 327, 420, 427, 436, 445, 468, 546
episodic memory 323, 359, 366
ethnomusicology 50, 51, 60, 69, 412
event-related potential (ERP) 213, 234, 235, 251, 252, 311, 319, 323, 340, 341, 370
events-in-time hypothesis 365, 407, 428
evolution
of emotion 108–111
of language 71, 72, 218, 249, 286, 331
of language and music 555–557
of speech and music 131–138
(p.654) expectation 6, 24, 34, 49, 116, 120, 191, 203, 208, 226, 252, 309, 376, 389, 445
in music 142, 143, 148, 161, 217, 258, 267, 294, 497
eXperience Induction Machine 411
expressive aphasia 322
external semantics in film 33, 173, 183–186, 189
extramusical meaning 22, 153–155
F5 neurons 84, 90, 99, 100, 150, 376–379, 491, 492
face-to-face communication 31, 47, 67, 72, 137, 221, 546
facial expression 12–14, 47, 96, 111, 122, 124, 132, 171, 210, 281, 437, 438, 481, 509, 550
feelings 11, 13, 117, 118, 160, 205, 210, 219
film 138, 220–226
external semantics in 33, 173, 183–186, 189
music 173–202, 222, 226
structure of 191–194
foraging 405, 407, 475, 553
forebrain 382, 499, 503, 507, 520, 526, 527
auditory pathway 530, 531, 547
motor pathway 504, 532, 533, 535
foundational cultural schema 30, 45, 52, 57, 63, 64
FoxP2 41, 499, 501, 505, 528–530
FOXP2 71, 505, 528, 560
frame of reference problem 398–400
functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) 219, 225, 311, 313, 324, 326, 328, 332, 339, 341, 350, 370, 390, 437, 456, 524, 526, 553
gamma oscillations 199, 252, 253, 364–366, 369, 431
gaze following 10, 72, 88, 89
generative grammar 68, 259, 394, 408
generative theory of tonal music (GTTM) 144, 226, 258, 259, 262, 269, 270, 272
generativity 169, 330, 542, 544, 547
Geneva Emotional Music Scale (GEMS) 129, 130
gestural origins hypothesis 484, 535, 536, 552
gesture 18, 23, 47, 49, 79, 106, 137, 246, 247, 297, 300, 324, 325, 327, 380, 428, 457, 485, 489, 545, 550, 552, 557
ape 72, 546, 548
infant 476, 477, 548
orofacial 28, 88, 90, 99, 105, 491
role of mirroring 91, 99, 102
GingerALE algorithm 311, 314
goal-directed motor acts 5, 32, 83, 87–91, 378–380, 487
GODIVA model 352, 353
Gricean signaling 70, 74, 75, 79
grids 19, 35, 257, 260, 271
group identity 19, 45, 46, 49, 168, 229, 308, 316, 327, 548, 549
grouping 18, 35, 260–262, 265, 271, 272, 278, 290–292, 396, 408, 422, 424, 426, 431, 433, 435, 468
habit 77, 111, 209, 220, 229, 316, 407
harmony 19, 131, 144, 257–259, 269, 272, 294, 323, 326, 340, 341, 348, 423
infant perception 466, 469
unexpected 161–163
Hayashi 482
headed hierarchies 260, 262, 271
hearing. See listening
hemisphere bias 243, 332, 333, 346, 347, 454, 455
hierarchical structure 36, 290–294, 296, 303, 401, 553
in language 35, 273, 274, 286
in music 395, 396, 409
in phonology 283–285
hippocampus 38, 163, 164, 198, 206, 253, 357, 365–367, 373–375, 406
hocket 53, 58, 60, 61, 64
holophrase 489, 490, 494
(p.655) Homo erectus 71
Homo heidelbergensis 71, 72
hummingbirds 494, 510, 513, 514, 520, 533
hypothalamus 26, 96, 168, 375
imitation 83, 84, 100, 102, 221, 486, 493, 496, 523, 548
complex 487–489, 495
in infants 10–12, 55, 477
vocal 493, 494, 500, 512, 527, 528
indexical meaning 22, 153, 154, 212, 214, 281, 300
infancy 24, 40, 121, 169, 347, 434–436, 463–480, 548
beat perception in 18, 326
imitation in 10–12, 477
maternal singing 21, 167, 468, 474–478
socialization 54–56
information
set of streams 297–301
structure 225, 239, 278, 289, 290
transfer 549, 556, 558
innate vocalizations 502, 508, 509, 515, 520, 523
input codes 39, 417, 418, 432, 433
instrumental music 6, 7, 43, 240, 259, 308, 309, 331, 340, 341, 347, 440, 453, 465, 482, 496, 546, 558
digital 402, 403, 410–412
intention
attribution 486, 550, 553
coding 92–94
recognition 67, 70, 75, 78, 111, 122, 141, 154, 159
intermerdiate-term memory 226–228
internal semantics of film 183–190
intonation 73, 123, 131, 132, 136, 170, 268, 269, 278, 281, 289, 298, 300, 311, 313, 319, 354, 360
contour 252, 253, 338, 428, 429, 439
intramusical meaning 22, 36, 153, 156–158
isochrony 170, 544, 554
Jaws 182, 183, 188, 189
joint action 31, 48, 67, 77–80, 83, 88, 95, 103, 159, 323, 328, 482, 542, 559
kaperní 543, 544
kin selection 494, 495
knowledge-free structuring 142, 143
laments 49, 78
language
ambiguity in 294–297
components of 546, 547
comprehension 144, 233, 238–240, 247, 420, 439, 440
defined 14–17, 20, 67
differences to music 332–335
diversity 68–71
evolution of 71, 72, 218, 249, 286, 331
gestural origins theory 484, 535, 536, 552
in infancy 463–480
mirroring in 99–101
origins of 72, 478, 479
processing 14, 34, 70, 148–152, 233, 235, 240–248, 251, 336, 421
language-music continuum. See music-language continuum
language-ready brain 34, 40, 68, 248–254, 376, 481–498
lateralization 248, 249, 298, 315, 317, 321, 352, 455, 459, 479, 547
leading tone 294, 330, 346, 348
learning 27, 359, 386, 403–414, 433–436. See also vocal learning
emotional 371–376
motor 41, 499, 504, 523, 535, 557, 561
reinforcement 212, 371, 374, 383
usage 509, 510
left anterior negativity (LAN) 149–152, 157, 341, 342
left inferior frontal cortex (LIFC) 241, 244–248, 251
leitmotif 154, 175, 176, 185, 190, 226
lexical tone 35, 273, 298, 448, 455
limbic system 11, 96, 98, 104, 135, 162–168, 225
linguistic meaning 330, 347
linguistic syntax 257–272, 340, 348
(p.656) listening 18, 143, 153, 159, 161, 164–166, 308, 309, 313, 324, 435, 437, 441, 444
neural activity during 524–526
skills in infancy 464–469
temporal regularity 468, 475
literacy 479, 483, 490
long-term memory 8, 143, 191, 194–196, 198–200, 227, 234, 247, 343, 347, 404–407, 422, 446, 456, 532
in infants 465, 467
lullabies 21, 466, 474
magnetoencephalography (MEG) 29, 147, 198, 326, 342, 347, 430, 437, 439
Mai 482
mammalian brain organization 519–522
motor pathway 507
mammalian family phylogenetic tree 504
manual dexterity 485, 496
Maori 49
Mbendjele 557
McGuill Digital Orchestra 403
meaning 7, 14, 16, 48–50, 184, 203–207, 215, 290, 385, 387, 418, 424, 494, 495
affective 22, 51, 214, 502
affective-propositional axis 212–217
associative 173, 175, 176, 188–190, 192–194
extramusical 22, 153–155
indexical 22, 153, 154, 212, 214, 281, 300
intramusical 22, 36, 153, 156–158
linguistic 330, 347
propositional 203, 214, 292, 494–496, 502, 512, 542, 552
sensorimotor-symbolic axis 217–220
shared 49, 83, 228, 380, 481
structure axis 220–228
melodic contour deafness hypothesis 338
melodic intonation therapy (MIT) 322, 354, 355, 451
melody 144, 268, 283, 317, 320, 326, 338, 446, 457–459, 466, 543
perception 227, 318, 456
role in flim music 174, 177, 181, 182, 189, 193
memory 206, 215, 221, 229, 309, 310, 324, 345, 359, 366, 446. See also long-term memory
auditory 445–447
autobiographic 485
declarative 323
episodic 323, 359, 366
intermediate-term 226–228
music-evoked autobiographical 323, 324
retrieval 235–240
short-term 338, 342, 388, 406, 407
working 8, 16, 27, 33, 144, 195, 224, 227, 247, 377, 382, 446, 469, 485, 490, 546
memory, unification, and control (MUC) model 236, 241, 242, 251, 254, 344, 345
mental lexicon 235–237, 239, 240, 421
Merina of Madagascar 51
metrical grid 261–264, 269–272
middle temporal gyrus (MTG) 244, 245, 249, 345, 452
mirroring 32, 67, 79, 83, 88–92, 216, 218, 220–222, 228
in dance and music 101–105
in language 99–101
mirror neuron 378–380
defined 485
mirror system 10–12, 70, 75, 94, 100, 195, 199, 218–220, 384, 428, 486
in humans 89–92
hypothesis 481, 484–491, 493–496, 553
model 378–380
in monkeys 84–88
role in emotion 95–98
mismatch negativity (MMN) 142, 151, 152, 319, 342, 436, 456, 497
(p.657) mokondi massana 53, 56–59
mood regulation 26, 500, 509
morphophonemics 276
morphosyntax 70, 286, 515
mother-infant interactions 40, 73, 472–477, 546, 548
motor cortex 84, 90, 100, 167, 216, 315, 345, 379, 521, 522
motor learning 41, 499, 504, 523, 535, 557, 561
motor schemas 7, 8, 20, 209, 358, 376, 377, 380, 390, 404
movement 469, 477, 482, 492, 499, 533, 544
in music 46–48, 199
synchronized 468, 474, 549, 557, 559
music. See also computer music
ambiguity in 293, 294
components of 546, 547
defined 20, 393, 394, 463
differences to language 332–335
expectancy in 24, 142, 143, 148, 161
function 22, 48–50, 165–168
in infancy 463–480
meaning in 153–160, 188–190, 330, 331, 347
mirroring in 101–105
neural substrates 307–328, 447–455
perception 141–172, 240, 245, 334, 338, 364, 369, 440, 441, 447, 471–474, 545
sequential ordering in 266, 267
social functions of 165–168
structure 22, 51, 52, 60–63, 130, 131, 148, 153, 161, 176, 186–188, 189, 190, 422
musicality 17–20, 46, 169, 185, 189, 331
musical protolanguage 331, 493–497, 537
hypothesis 481, 493–496
musical semantics 34, 153, 213, 347, 546
musical syntax 34, 35, 141–153, 167, 257–272, 330, 347, 369
components 260–262
defined 257
processing 32, 142, 145–152
musical training 147, 169, 330, 332, 336, 341, 346, 348, 452
music composition 38, 393, 394, 397, 398, 401, 407, 412
music-evoked autobiographical memories (MEAM) 323, 324
music-language continuum 20–24, 56, 64, 141, 169–172, 544
music making 20, 30, 168, 169, 410, 412, 413, 434
co-pathy 166, 167
music therapy 29, 163–165, 167, 331, 332
narrative 33, 34, 43, 73, 171, 180, 221–226, 302, 308, 323–325, 412
in film music 173–201
working 33, 173, 191, 192, 194–201
natural selection 25, 483, 493, 554, 556
navigation 327, 366, 371, 373, 376
taxon affordance model (TAM) 374
Neanderthals 69, 71, 134, 135
neocortex 362, 363, 382
neural Darwinism 344
neural oscillation hypothesis 430, 431
neural plasticity 26, 336, 355, 359, 369, 433–436, 443, 450, 483, 517
neural rhythms 29, 252–254, 364–371, 367–369
neuraxis 404–414
neurogenesis 164, 517
neutralization 277, 279
ngére 544
niche construction
cultural 483, 554
intentional 483–485
neural 483, 493
triadic 40, 41, 481, 490, 541, 559, 560
Noh play 482
nondiegetic music 177–180, 189, 197
nonfluent aphasia 331, 354, 454
nucleus accumbens 97, 162, 163, 206, 374–376
(p.658) ontogenetic ritualization 10, 489
oratory 49, 544
orofacial gestures 28, 88, 90, 99, 105, 491
OSCillator-Based Associative Recall 370
oscine songbirds 504, 510, 513, 555
P600 213, 251, 341, 389
pantomime 40, 47, 90, 91, 213, 476, 481, 486, 489, 493, 496, 552, 557
paralanguage 49, 77
paralimbic system 162–172
Parkinson’s disease 367, 524
parrots 327, 450, 494, 502, 503, 507, 510, 513, 514, 517, 520, 533, 545
African Gray 495, 514, 515, 545, 546
pedagogy 482, 552, 553
perception-action cycle 307–310, 316, 436, 437
perception-prediction-action cycle 436–439
perceptual schema 7–10, 208–210, 358, 380
performance 19, 46–48, 52–55, 71, 77, 78, 122, 130, 369, 373, 376, 386, 395, 396, 402, 408, 427, 430, 453, 557. See also spirit plays
role of mirroring in 104
synchronized 29, 168, 220, 548
perisylvian cortex 101, 240, 241, 347, 451
left 244, 248, 250, 251
phoneme 225, 259, 260, 273, 276, 286, 292, 299, 360
suprasegmental 279, 280
phonemic principle 275, 276
phonetics 35, 260, 273–288, 352, 511
phonology 15, 34, 35, 41, 70, 100, 105, 273–288, 297, 298, 346, 494, 495, 546
autosegmental 282, 283
in birdsong 514–516
hierarchical structures in 283–285
model for processing 243
phonotactics 276, 279
phrasing 10, 239, 278, 298, 325, 360
pinnipeds 510, 520
pitch 170, 176, 186, 187, 279, 282, 283, 292, 348, 396, 423, 446, 454. See also tonal pitch space
absolute 26, 428, 443, 454, 465, 466
contour 22, 126, 268, 271, 272, 338
perception 332, 390, 441, 469
processing 332, 333
relations 258, 267, 269, 271, 317
relative 38, 329, 337–339, 419, 420, 425, 426, 428, 429, 435, 443, 454, 465, 466, 546
role in emotion 21, 23, 123, 124, 134
planning 7, 209, 210, 212, 218, 303, 345, 408, 550–554
poetry 23, 78, 130, 170, 259, 261, 269, 271, 272, 278, 284–286, 422, 445, 446, 457, 459, 482
polyphony 53–55, 57, 60–62, 64, 142
positron emission tomography (PET) 27, 29, 162, 311, 313, 524–527, 553
prefrontal cortex (PFC) 89, 90, 101, 103, 106, 147, 162, 206, 211, 212, 220, 223–225, 242, 339, 375, 377, 382–384, 429
dorsolateral 316, 345
dorsomedial 223, 323, 324
medial 224, 324, 553
ventral 84, 85, 89, 91, 94, 99, 148, 216, 222, 352, 354
ventrolateral 324, 325
problem of priors 398, 400, 403–414
production learning 509, 555
propositionality 542, 545, 552, 556, 558
(p.659) propositional meaning 203, 214, 292, 494–496, 502, 512, 542, 552
propositional semantics 153, 170, 171
prosody 21, 23, 35, 49, 77, 123, 124, 130, 139, 215, 239, 273–288, 298, 324, 336, 360, 370, 494, 545
affective 153, 160, 172
infant-directed 473
processing of 317
protolanguage 40, 72, 73, 479, 488–490, 557
protosign 40, 481, 489, 492, 493, 495, 496, 550, 552
protospeech 40, 481, 489, 492, 493, 495
protosyntax 135
pure word deafness 447
recurrent sound patterns 271, 272
recursion 14, 16, 76, 144, 217, 268, 285, 290, 395, 398, 399, 407, 412, 546
reinforcement learning 212, 371, 374, 383
relative pitch 38, 419, 420, 425, 426, 428, 429, 435, 443, 454, 546
in infants 465, 466
processing of 329, 337–339
relaxation 258, 266, 267, 271, 284, 388
re(per)curso 393, 410
reward processing 375, 382, 390
rhyme 23, 234, 271, 278, 474
rhythm 18, 21–23, 47, 79, 103, 131, 134, 216, 271, 283, 294, 299, 327, 368, 399, 497, 545
in infancy 468, 471–477
role in film 177, 183, 186, 188
role in socialization 54–56
ritual 12, 30, 45, 50–58, 63, 134, 137, 204, 219, 308, 327, 477, 478
ritualization 10, 90, 102, 120, 135, 489
Road House 177, 189, 193
Robo1 528–530
RoBoser 393, 394, 407, 409, 410, 412
robotics 363, 397, 400–411, 413
Rossel Islanders, Papua New Guinea 77, 78
sarén 543, 544
schema 209, 267, 358, 359, 378
anticipatory 208
foundational cultural 31, 45, 52, 57, 63, 64
motor 7, 8, 20, 209, 358, 376, 377, 380, 390, 404
perceptual 7–10, 208–210, 358, 380
social 9, 27, 42, 220
theory 8–10, 195, 197, 358, 400
semantics 203, 297, 298, 323, 324, 330, 331, 546
in birdsong 514–516
compositional 14, 15, 20, 23, 218, 287, 490, 547, 557
internal 183–190
musical 34, 153, 213, 347, 546
propositional 153, 170, 171
semantic unification 246–248, 345
semiotics 212–215
set of streams 297–301
sexual selection 493, 494, 518, 537, 554, 555
shared attention 88, 89
shared goals 159, 167, 168, 551, 554
shared intentionality 549, 556
shared meaning 49, 83, 228, 380, 481
shared syntactic integration resource hypothesis (SSIRH) 245, 340, 343–345, 349–351, 448, 456, 457
Shining, The 187–189, 192, 199
short-term memory 338, 342, 388, 406, 407
sign language 6, 15, 47, 67, 72, 91, 213, 238, 274, 276, 279, 300, 363, 380, 471, 477, 489, 496
Bedouin 15, 286
sign quality 22, 153, 154, 159, 171
silent film 174, 178, 179, 193
The Artist 179
simulation theory of mind 93, 221, 222
singing 283, 422, 441, 482, 536. See also birdsong
in birds 513, 516, 518, 524–526
collaborative 335, 477
impact on infants 473–475
maternal 21, 167, 468, 474–478
right hemisphere dominance 458
(p.660) singing
similarities with birdsong 501–503
temporal organization in 325, 326
Slit1 528–530
SMuSe system 410, 413
social bonds 204, 308, 323. See also bonding
social cognition 154, 165, 166, 219, 221, 324
social interaction 4, 8, 12, 19, 40, 72, 88, 107–110, 119, 127, 133–139, 205, 208, 218, 220, 228, 439, 478, 546, 555, 561
capacity for 548
role of emotions 210
socialization 49, 50, 121, 473
musical 54–56
social learning 70, 71, 488, 509
Social Network, The 174, 181–183, 186–189, 199
social organization 49, 53, 54, 56, 111
social schemas 9, 27, 42, 220
song 20–22, 31, 49, 67, 167, 170, 285, 299, 300, 336, 427, 482, 493, 501, 543
aphasia 524, 532
BaYaka 56–61
brain areas for 521–527
defined 512
Dinka 283
functions of 307–309
in infancy 474–477
lyrics and melody 320–323
neural mechanisms of 311–324, 331, 352
nuclei 518, 520, 524, 526, 533
perception 311–314, 316, 318, 458, 517, 532
production 311, 315, 316, 453, 457–459, 511, 526
Rossel Islander 77, 78
sound map 354, 457
word articulation in 351, 352
songbird 8, 23, 71, 72, 500, 533, 537, 542, 555, 560
learning pathways 502–505, 520–522
oscine 504, 510, 513
prototypical 516, 517
speech 15, 22, 47, 49, 59, 77, 78, 108, 167, 170, 271, 332, 346, 502, 512, 543, 550
audiovisual 422, 427, 437, 438
components 363
comprehension 233–239, 360
contour 267–269
emotion in 23, 104, 122–139
evolution of 71, 72, 121, 135
maternal 474–476
neural basis of 455–457, 519–532
perception 100, 101, 418, 430, 447, 532, 545, 546
in infancy 471–474
processing 242–244, 252–254, 336, 364, 367
production 315, 352, 353, 360, 363, 370, 438, 439, 453, 511–513, 526, 536
rate 125, 234, 251, 278, 429
rhythmic structure 368
sound map (SSM) 352, 354, 457
Suyá 543, 544
therapy 354, 454
word articulation 351–355
spirit plays 53–59
Stanford Laptop Orchestra 403
Stick Dance of Bhaktapur 50–52
storytelling 49, 191, 552
stress 269–271, 284, 296, 299
structure 220, 289–304, 349, 362, 400, 419–432, 546. See also hierarchical structure; music structure
axes of 279–282
events in time 361–364
knowledge-free 142, 143
large-scale 205, 206, 220, 223–228
set of streams 297–299
surface 290, 291, 295
suboscines 504, 512, 513, 555
superior temporal gyrus (STG) 147, 216, 225, 244, 317–319, 333, 343, 345, 351, 381, 426
superior temporal sulcus (STS) 166, 216, 222, 224, 243, 244, 247, 318, 378, 379, 426, 427, 438
(p.661) supplementary motor area (SMA) 216, 315, 325, 326, 429, 441, 444, 539
Suyá 46, 543, 544
syllable 225, 234, 253, 260, 273, 276–280, 284, 299, 302
coupling with pitch 313–315, 318, 320
stress 261, 269–272
symbol grounding 398, 399, 403
synchronization 216, 228, 364, 365, 420, 427
in dance 326, 327
group 204
synchrony 198, 468, 477, 555
in film 185, 189
syntactic processing 106, 156, 157, 169, 213, 233–235, 244, 245, 301, 331, 340–351, 369, 456
interactions, language and music 148–153
music 32, 142, 145–152
syntax 16, 21, 34, 73, 80, 101, 289–293, 295–298, 336, 347, 370, 422, 495, 552, 557
in birdsong 514–518, 536
development 386, 490
language 76, 77, 105, 167, 257–272, 340, 348
morpho- 70, 286, 515
proto- 135
taxon affordance model (TAM) 374
temporal population code (TPC) 399
model 361, 362, 364
tension 124, 129, 161, 180, 185, 220, 226, 258, 266, 267, 271, 272, 284, 340, 348, 388, 389, 469
thalamus 315, 367, 368, 383, 526
theory of mind 70, 71, 74, 165, 220, 393, 400, 546, 553, 557
theory theory 92, 93
theta oscillations 252, 299, 302, 364, 365, 368, 430
timbre 228, 271, 299, 311, 326, 390, 394, 396, 408, 422, 426, 434, 446, 558
processing 332, 333, 467
timing 104, 170, 176, 269, 299, 357, 373, 404, 439–441, 544, 545
neural basis for 251, 252, 325, 372, 429–432, 444–445
relative 435
tonality 126, 132, 269, 272, 348, 420
processing 324, 340–351
tonal music 17, 42, 73, 170, 204, 226, 257, 266, 267, 270, 289, 348, 360, 394–396, 399, 410, 412, 423, 465, 466, 469, 470, 543
tonal pitch space (TPS) 144, 258, 259, 267, 268, 293, 344
tone 278, 279, 281, 282, 283
lexical 35, 273, 298, 448, 455
sequence recognition 282, 338, 339
tonic 259, 261, 265, 266, 271, 280, 294, 335, 348
tool use 16, 71, 85, 303, 483, 496, 552, 553
training 487, 488, 559
triadic niche construction 40, 41, 481, 490, 541, 559, 560
tripartite emotion expression and perception (TEEP) model 119–121, 138
turn-taking 31, 47, 67, 72–74, 79, 204, 242, 295, 302, 420, 427, 436, 439–441, 457, 476
interactive alignment model 440
uncinate fasciculus 250, 345, 438, 452, 453
unification 235–238, 240, 242, 244–248, 344–346
semantic 246–248, 345
universal grammar 17, 31, 67–70, 269
usage learning 509, 510
Utai 482
utilitarian emotions 12, 32, 107, 128, 130, 138, 211, 215, 216
ventral premotor cortex 84, 85, 89, 91, 94, 99, 148, 216, 222, 352, 354
verbal amusia 523
verbal aphasia 523, 524, 526
vocal capacity 560, 562
(p.662) vocal control 99, 319, 320, 448, 449, 485, 512, 557
brain activation patterns 525
brain regions 520–522, 547
vocal expression 79, 99, 118, 122–125, 127, 132, 495
of emotion 131–138
maternal 475
vocal imitation 493, 494, 500, 512, 527, 528
vocal learning 8, 22, 31, 41, 67–70, 75, 105, 167, 330, 483, 491–493, 499–540, 557, 561. See also complex vocal learning
brain areas 504–507
capacity 495, 555
defined 508–510
evolution of 500, 503–508, 550
human vs. birdsong 501–503
motor theory for 532–536
voice
discrimination 425, 434, 449
onset time (VOT) 276–279, 298
pitch 268, 281
quality 47, 130, 171, 188, 189, 318, 474
Water Passion after St. Matthew 42–44
Wernicke’s area 100, 101, 241, 320, 451, 532, 547
Western tonal music. See tonal music
whale song 272, 331, 494, 510, 546
word
accent 278, 280, 298, 299
articulation 38, 329, 351–355, 451
order 68, 69, 266, 289, 384
recognition 234, 251, 332
stress 278, 280
working memory 8, 16, 27, 33, 144, 195, 224, 227, 247, 377, 382, 446, 469, 485, 490, 546
working narrative 33, 173, 191, 192, 194–201, 227
Yesterday 262–266, 476
yodeling 53, 55, 60
zebra finch 507, 512, 514, 515, 518, 523, 525, 528, 533