This chapter discusses Classical NEG Raising (NR) against a background assumption about negative polarity items (NPIs). It considers a standard NPI example like ever in the sentence Chloe did not ever taste beer. On the standard view, because ever is an NPI, it can only occur in contexts where it relates in specific ways to a form standardly called its licenser. In the above example, the licenser would be not, while the sentence Chloe ever tasted beer would be ungrammatical because of the absence of a legitimate licenser. This chapter explores different ways of capturing the fact that the raising of the NEG in Chloe did not ever taste beer is semantically vacuous, citing Minimalist syntax where the natural treatment of the semantic vacuity of NEG raising would be in terms of reconstruction. It also analyzes verbal negation, support for the negation analysis of NPIs, the JACK class minimizers, and the semantics of negation.
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