In this concluding chapter, Michael Mason and Aarti Gupta distil comparative insights from the preceding chapters relating to the analytical framework informing the book: whytransparency now? How is transparency being institutionalized? What effects is it having? In addressing these questions, they also assess whether the contributions validate posited hypotheses relating to:(i) democratization and marketization as drivers of disclosure; (ii) whether disclosure-based governance decentersstate-led regulation and opens up political space for other actors; and (iii) the conditions under which transparency may be transformative. Taken as a whole, the book’s findings reaffirm that transparency is here to stay, with information disclosure becoming widely institutionalized in diverse ways in global environmental governance. Its empowerment potential, however, remains limited, partly because of the dominanceof the marketization driver of disclosure over a democratization rationale. The authors conclude that the transparency turn in global environmental governancefaces a legitimation deficit, fed by procedural inequities and lack of evidence relating to its environmental effectiveness.
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