This chapter draws on theories, particularly the scholarship of Antonio Gramsci, in offering a strategic framework that considers power relations. It argues that the world is not the same as it was back in 2008 before the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in Copenhagen. It explores recent shifts in power dynamics and considers their impact on our ability to take effective and equitable action on climate change. The main argument here is that the world order has transformed along four main axes: its political economy, geopolitics, ecological conditions, and the capabilities of transnational civil society. The chapter focuses on the struggles of marginalized and particularly vulnerable states and civil society actors seeking climate justice, and the processes that inhibit and facilitate their influence.
Keywords: Antonio Gramsci, power relations, UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, power dynamics, action on climate change, world order, political economy, geopolitics, ecological conditions, transnational civil society
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