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Why Only UsLanguage and Evolution$

Robert C. Berwick and Noam Chomsky

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780262034241

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262034241.001.0001

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(p.207) Subject Index

(p.207) Subject Index

Source:
Why Only Us
Publisher:
The MIT Press
Acquisition
beginning in infancy, 1
of birdsong by songbirds, 142–143
and brain development, 161–162
of signed and spoken languages, 75, 172n3
and species-specificity of language, 98, 103
and universal grammar, 6, 91
Adaptation, 3, 23, 33–36, 109. See also Fitness; Natural selection
and evolution, 25–27
Adjunction, 113
Advantage, selective, of language, 80, 164–166
Africa, spread of modern humans out of, 38–39, 54, 83, 150
Algorithms for computation of human language, 132–139
Altitude adaptation, 26–27
Alzheimer’s disease, 170n11
Anatomically modern humans, 38–39, 49, 50, 110, 152
Animal communication systems, 63–64, 81, 84–85, 102. See also Communication
Anthropological linguistics, 58
Ants, 131–132
Apes, 48, 143
Arcy-sur-Cure, 153–154
Art, figurative, 38. See also Symbolic behavior
Associationist learning, 146
Associativity, 120, 127–128, 177n12
Autapomorphy, language as, 53, 63. See also Uniqueness of language to humans
Basic Property of language, 1, 11, 50, 89–90, 107, 149–154
Binding, 100, 118–119
Biolinguistic perspective, 53, 56, 89–90
Blombos Cave, 38, 149, 150
Bounded context, 124–125, 126–127, 142
Bounded Degree of Error, 126
(p.208) Brain size of humans, 3, 29, 38, 48–49, 65, 152
Brain structure and language, 12–14, 159–163
Broca’s area, 159
Campbell’s monkeys, 177n12
Canaries, 142
Cannibalism, 153
Caruso theory of language evolution, 3–4
Category formation, 12
Chance as an evolutionary factor, 16, 17–23, 25, 28, 31–32. See also Stochastic effects in evolution
Change, linguistic, 55, 82, 83, 91–92
Châtelperronian cave at Arcy-sur-Cure, 153–154
Child-directed speech, 5
Chimpanzees
ability to cook food, 32–33
attempts to teach human language to, 112, 145–148
communication and, 85
genetic differences from humans, 43, 45, 48
Chromosome 17 in women, 20
Chunks, 115–116, 140, 141, 142
Church-Turing thesis, 9
CNTNAP 2, 177n15
Cocke-Kasami-Younger (CKY) algorithm, 134, 137, 139
Cognoscitive powers, 85–86
Combinatory categorial grammar, 113, 129
Communication, 63–64, 80–82, 86, 101–102
Computational complexity, 174–175n7
Computational intractability of evolution, 19, 29, 176n9
Computation of linguistic structure, 9–11, 120–139
Concatenation, 99, 127–128
Conceptual-intentional interface. See Semantic-pragmatic interface
Conceptual structures in other animals, 84–85, 146, 173n2
Conditions for study of evolution of language, 2, 94–98
Constraints, physical, 40, 59–60, 78. See also Laws and principles of nature
Content-addressable memory, 135–137
Context-free grammars (CFGs), 112–113, 128–129, 130–131, 175n9. See also Phrase structure grammar
Continuity vs. discontinuity of evolution. See also Gradualism; Micromutationism
of the eye, 31–32
of language, arguments for continuity, 3, 9, 30, 32–33, 96, 115
of language, arguments for discontinuity, 5, 14, 96, 143
and population genetics, 16
Convergent evolution, 12
Cooking, 32
Copy property of Internal Merge, 99–101, 107, 141
Corvids, 139–140
(p.209) Counting and language, 54, 126
Creativity of language use, 88
Creeps, evolution by, 26. See also Continuity vs. discontinuity of evolution
Critical period for language acquisition, 5
Crows, 139–140
Darwinism, 2–3, 109–110
Darwin’s problem, 3, 4, 11
Degree 2 learnability theory, 126
Denisovans, 27, 29, 46, 50
Deterministic polynomial time, 174n7
Developmental-genetic toolkit, 61
Digital infinity, 1, 66, 70
Disconnect between Homo morphological and behavioral changes, 37–38, 149
Displacement, 55, 72–74, 79, 99–100, 106–107, 141
Distance, structural vs. linear in language, 8–9, 103, 116
Diversity. See also Uniformity; Variation
of languages, 57–58, 82–83, 92–93, 105, 107, 119–120
of organic forms, 58, 61
of word combinations, as measure of rule-governed behavior, 147–148
Divide-and-conquer approach to the language-evolution problem, 11, 14, 45
Drift, genetic, 17–19
Duplication, genomic, 49–50, 169n9
Dyspraxia, verbal, and FOXP2, 75–79. See also Pathologies
Earley algorithm, 134, 137, 138
Effective population size, human, 46
Efficiency, computational, 71, 73–74, 91, 101, 107, 142
El Sidrón Cave, 151
Enhancers, and evolution, 43–44, 48
Entrainment, dissociation of externalization and syntax, 14
Evolution and constraints, 64
Evolution and development (evo-devo), 58, 60, 62, 67, 68, 157
Evolution and game theory, 23–25
Evolvability of universal grammar, 2, 91, 93, 94, 96
Exaptation, 39
Explanatory adequacy, 132
Externalization
and displacement, 74
and FOXP 2, 40–41, 75–77
as input-output system, 2
and language diversity, 82–83, 105, 108
not modality-specific, 11–12
relatively peripheral to language, 2, 74–76, 80, 101, 106
as secondary, 74–75
External Merge, 73, 99, 112, 128
(p.210) Eye, evolution of, 25, 30–32, 67, 157
Feature-agreement processing, 177n15
Fiber tracts connecting Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, 159–163
Figurative art, 38. See also Symbolic behavior
Filler-gap problems, 74, 101
Finches, 29, 123, 126, 141, 144–145
Finite-state machines, 121
Finite-state transition networks, 120, 121–128, 131, 140–141, 142, 177n12
Fitness, 19, 20, 21, 23, 29, 46, 168n6. See also Adaptation; Natural selection
Fixation of genetic traits in populations, 17, 22–23, 46
FOXP2 (gene) and FOXP2 (protein)
in Neandertals and humans, 47, 151, 169–170n10
and processing, 177n15
selective sweep in, 155
and the sensorimotor system, 40–41, 75–79
Frequency-dependent selection, game theory and, 24–25
Function, biological, 3, 39, 63
Gallistel’s problem, 51, 139
Game theory, in evolutionary modeling, 23–25
Generalized negative regulation theory, 68
Generative capacity, 128, 175n9
Gene duplication, 49, 52, 169n9
Generative grammar, history of, 1–2, 5–7, 68–71, 91, 93–94, 96–97
Generative procedures, 66, 69–70. See also Merge
Genetic drift, 17–19
Genetics and language, 5, 6
Genetics of adaptation, 35
Genomics, human, 39, 45–50, 177n15
and Neandertals vs. humans, 48–49
Geospiza fortis and G. scandens, 29
Grotte du Renne, 154
HARE 5, 48–49
Harmony, in phonology, 120–124, 141–142
Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG), 113, 129
Head grammar, 175n8
Hierarchical nature of linguistic structure, 8–9, 12, 112, 115–118
Homo erectus, 48
Homo ergaster, 38, 39
Homo habilis, 48
“Hopeful monsters,” 33
HPSG, 113, 129
Human capacity, the, 55, 64–65, 86
Human evolution, paleoarcheological, 38–40
(p.211) Human vs. nonhuman processing, 9–11
Hybridization, 154–155
I-language, 90
Impairment, language, 5. See also Dyspraxia, verbal, and FOXP2
Implementation of human-language computation, 50–52, 110, 132–133, 139, 157
Indo-Europeanists, 94–95
Infinity, digital, 1, 66, 70
Inheritance, particulate vs. blending, 15–16, 17
Insect navigation, 131–132, 157
Integration of information, 165–166
Intelligence, evolution of, 28–29
Internal mental tool, language as, 4, 81–82, 165. See also Thought, language as instrument of
Internal Merge, 73, 99, 125, 129–130, 173n2
Interpretation at interfaces, 1, 8, 11, 99–100, 111. See also Semantic-pragmatic interface; Sensorimotor interface
Introgression, 27
Jerks, evolution by, 26. See also Continuity vs. discontinuity of evolution
Kanzi (bonobo), 177n13
k-local and k-piecewise regular languages, 124–125
k-reversible finite-state transition networks, 126, 142–143
Kuypers-Jürgens hypothesis, 167n4
Labels, syntactic, 10, 113, 136
Lactase persistence, 27, 46, 171n1
Language (term), 53
Language and counting, 54, 126
Language as mental tool, 4, 81–82, 165. See also Thought, language as instrument of
Language change, 55, 82, 83, 91–92
Language of thought, 11, 70, 87, 158, 172n6
Laws and principles of nature, 67, 71, 78, 91. See also Efficiency, computational; Physical laws and constraints
LCT, lactase persistence gene, 46
Learnability of grammars, 91, 125, 126–127, 142–143. See also Acquisition
Lexical-functional grammar (LFG), 113, 129
Lexical items. See Word-like atoms of language
Lexicon, 66, 99, 159, 161
Linear ordering of words/signs, 8–9, 12, 69, 75, 102–103, 114, 119–120
(p.212) Linear precedence constraints, 121, 140
Linear processing models, 9–10, 115–117
Linear vs. hierarchical structure, 8–11, 106, 117–119
Linguistic universals, 167n3
Locality constraints, 124–127
Lonchuria striata domestica, 141
Lookup, 136
Macaques, 163
Marmosets, 14
Marr explanatory levels, 132–139
Matrices in computation, 134, 138
MEF 2A, 49
Mental phenomena, scientific status of, 56, 88
Mental tool, language as, 4, 81–82, 165. See Thought, language as instrument of
Merge, 10–11. See also Generative procedures
definition of, 10, 72–73
and displacement, 72–74
emergence of, 79, 87, 149, 164, 175n9
External, 73, 99, 112, 128
Internal, 73, 99, 125, 129–130, 173n2
as language “CPU,” 40
linear order not specified by, 113, 114
and nonhumans, 144
optimality/simplicity of, 70–71, 98–99
Mildly context-sensitive languages, 131, 176n9
Mind-body problem, 56
Mind-independent entities, characteristic of animal communication, 84–85, 147
Minimal computation/search, 10, 125
Minimalist Program, 8–9, 94, 111
Modern Synthesis, 15, 16–17, 26, 33, 62
Motor control and learning, and FOXP 2, 76–77
Multiple context-free grammars (MCFGs), 129–131, 175n9
Music, 3–4
Mutation, as cause of emergence of language, 70
Natural selection and emergence of language, 3, 65, 109
and other evolutionary factors, 22, 25, 34, 37, 59, 105
scope of solutions accessible by, 19, 175–176n9
as a sieve, 15, 31, 39, 59, 154
speed of, 30. See also Speed of evolutionary changes
stochastic effects and, 16, 19–20, 28. See also Stochastic effects in evolution
Natura non facit saltum,” 3, 30. See also Continuity vs. discontinuity of evolution
(p.213) Navajo sibilant harmony, 120–124
Navigation, 131–132, 157
Neandertals, 27, 29, 38, 46–50, 150–154, 169–170n10
Nim (chimpanzee), 112, 145–148
Noncoding DNA, 43
Nonsense systems, 106
Occipital bun in Neandertals, 152–153
Opsins, 67, 168n8
Paleoarcheology of Homo, 37–38, 152
Panadaptationism, 109
Parallel parsing, 133, 138–139
Parameters, linguistic, 7, 54–55, 68–69, 82
Paris Linguistic Society, 94
Parsing algorithms, 134–135
Pathologies, 5. See also Dyspraxia, verbal, and FOXP2
Pedigree analysis, 5
Phenotype, language, 2, 6, 7, 11, 48
Phonemes and nonhuman analogs, 14, 78
Phonotactics, 120–126
Photoreceptor cells, 30–32
Phrase structure grammar, 70, 72, 173n2. See also Context-free grammars
Physical laws and constraints, 40, 59–60, 78. See also Laws and principles of nature
Pigment cells, 30–32
Population size and population genetics, 16, 17, 21–23, 46, 152
Primates, 9–10, 143, 145, 163–164. See also Apes; Chimpanzees
Principles and Parameters framework, 7, 68–69, 93
Processing of natural language, 9–10, 50–51, 115–118, 137–138
Project Nim, 112, 145–148
Pronouns and pronominal binding, 118–119
Protolanguage, musical, 3–4
Proxies for language in the anthropological record, 50, 87, 149, 153
Pushdown stacks, 50, 117, 131, 133–134
Quad trees, 136
Quantal theory of speech production, 75
Quantifier variable binding, 100
Quantitative trait locus analysis, 35
Rational morphology, 62
Recursion, 9, 66, 71, 112, 172n6
Reference and referentialism, 85–86, 90–91
Regular languages and relations, 120, 123–126. See also Finite-state transition networks
Regular languages, limits of, 128, 174n4
Regulation, 42–43, 49
(p.214) Rewiring of the brain, emergence of language as, 67, 79, 107, 110, 164
Rule-governed behavior vs. memorization, 147–148
Sampling effects, 17–19
Scala Naturae, 131–132
Selective advantage, 20
of language, 80, 164–166
Selective strength, 46. See also Fitness
Selective sweeps, 52, 151, 152, 154–156, 170n11
Semantic-pragmatic interface, 1, 11, 70. See also Thought, language as instrument of
Sensorimotor interface, 2, 11, 40, 82. See also Externalization
Set-theoretic representation and Merge, 10, 98, 135
Sibilant harmony in Navajo, 120–124
Sign language, 5, 74–74, 83, 172n3
Simpler Syntax, 175n7
Simplicity of syntax of human language, 2, 7, 70, 98–99, 106
Singing, 3–4
SLIT 1, 42
Speech perception, 143
Speed of evolutionary changes, 26, 28, 29–30, 31, 45, 105, 169n9, 176n9
Spread of modern humans out of Africa, 38–39, 54, 83, 150
Starlings, 144
Stickleback fish, 67
Stochastic effects in evolution, 17–23, 25, 31–32, 36, 46. See also Chance as an evolutionary factor
Stochastic gravity well, 22, 27, 46
“Streams,” language processing by, 115–116
Strong generative capacity, 128
Strong Minimalist Thesis (SMT), 71–72, 84, 94, 98
Structuralism, 57, 95–96
Structure dependence of rules, 8–9, 103–104, 114–115, 118–119
Symbolic behavior, 38, 50, 55, 149, 150, 153–154
Tape of life, 60
Television, analogy to externalization, 172n5
Thought, language as instrument of. See also Language of thought
and Darwin’s Caruso theory, 3–4
rather than communication, 64, 74, 81, 101–102, 107
selective advantage of, 164–166
Tibetans, 26–27
Time for emergence of language, 149–150
Tonal languages, putative genetic preference for, 171n1
(p.215) Transcription factors and evolution. See FOXP2 (gene) and FOXP2 (protein)
Transformational generative grammar, 5–6, 114, 126, 135, 173n3
Transitions in evolution, 26–28
Tree-adjoining grammar (TAG), 113, 129
Tree structures, 135, 176n11
Tripartite model of human language, 11, 40
Tuning by infants, 14
Turing machines, 50, 117, 131, 134–135, 174n7
Uniformitarianism, 30, 33
Uniformity. See also Diversity; Variation
of human language faculty, 54, 87, 105–106, 177n15
in nature, 58, 60–62
Uniqueness of language to humans, 53, 63–64, 84–86, 98, 132
“Universal algorithmic acid,” fitness/selection as, 19, 176n9
Universal grammar (UG), 6–7, 58, 90–91, 92–93, 97–98
Universals, linguistic, 167n3
Vapnik-Chernovenkis dimension, 126–127
Variation. See also Diversity; Uniformity
crosslinguistic, 57–58, 82–83, 92–93, 105, 107, 119–120
genetic, 15, 53, 57, 170–171n1, 177n15
Very large scale integrated circuits, 138
Vocal learning, 2, 12–14, 40–45, 140, 144
Vocal tract, genetic differences and linguistic effects, 170–171n1
Wallace’s problem. See Darwin’s problem
Weak generative capacity, 175n9
Wernicke’s area, 159
Western scrub jays, 140
Wings, 105
Word-like atoms of language
evolution of, 66, 71–72, 90–91, 149, 173n1
mind-dependent/nonreferential, 84–86
in the Principles and Parameters framework, 7
stored in the lexicon, 66, 159
uniquely human, 84–85, 146–148
Workspace, generative, 99, 164