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Statistical Approaches to Gene X Environment Interactions for Complex Phenotypes$
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Michael Windle

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780262034685

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: May 2017

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262034685.001.0001

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Cumulative Gene × Environment Influences on Neurobehavioral Development in Humans and Nonhuman Primates

Cumulative Gene × Environment Influences on Neurobehavioral Development in Humans and Nonhuman Primates

Chapter:
(p.193) 9 Cumulative Gene × Environment Influences on Neurobehavioral Development in Humans and Nonhuman Primates
Source:
Statistical Approaches to Gene X Environment Interactions for Complex Phenotypes
Author(s):

Fatima Umber Ahmed

Erin Loraine Kinnally

Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:10.7551/mitpress/9780262034685.003.0009

In this chapter Ahmed and Kinnally provide some longitudinal examples and illustrations of how G x E influences may be studied with regard to neurobehavioral (brain) development in human and non-human primates. The chapter provides keen insight into two significant conceptual and methodological issues in the study of G X E interactions. First, is the importance of considering the findings from both human and non-human studies on genes and environment, thereby suggesting a more integrative lens for thinking about, planning, and interpreting research findings in G X E research. Second, they propose the use of multiple methods to investigate G X E interactions, including in their applications the use of both SNP-based and micro-array-based methods. With the quite massive increases in available large data sources (e.g., genomics, proteomics, metabolomics), there will be clear benefits in future research to incorporate different methods or sources of data toward identifying underlying biological mechanisms. Furthermore, the use of longitudinal research designs to study G X E interactions for time-ordered change phenomena such as neurobehavioral development provides a promising approach to identify and translate basic research findings into practice.

Keywords:   Neurobehavioral development, Longitudinal G X E interactions, Human and Non-Human Primates, Gene expression

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