This chapter deals with the role of development in the generation of phenotypic innovation, and outlines the conceptual contributions of the innovation approach to an extended evolutionary synthesis. It focuses on the occurrence of morphological novelty in established metazoan lineages and demonstrates that the epigenetic factors have a significant role in causing innovation. The chapter shows that while the type I novelties in the pre-Mendelian world would predominantly lead from the physical properties of simple cell aggregates, type II and type III innovations in the Mendelian world would be based on the dynamical properties of integrated gene, cell, and tissue interactions.
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