Comprehension and response arise in situations which trigger default rules—that is, standard communication. However, a large number of interesting cases go beyond the bounds of normality, which may be classified as non-expressive interaction, exploitation, deception, and failure. Each of these cases provides independent evidence in favor of cognitive pragmatics. This chapter examines nonstandard communication, which encompasses those processes that must have recourse to classic inferencing procedures because of their inability to apply standard default rules owing to the latter’s inappropriateness to the context. Among the different types of exploitation, it considers two cases: Irony and as-if situations.
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