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Agreement and Head MovementClitics, Incorporation, and Defective Goals$
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Ian Roberts

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780262014304

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: August 2013

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262014304.001.0001

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(p.41) 3 Cliticization
Agreement and Head Movement

Ian Roberts

The MIT Press

This chapter describes a case of putative head movement where the A-over-A Condition is irrelevant: The movement of simultaneously minimal and maximal categories. It focuses on Romance clitics, which show at least some properties of head movement and, by treating them as simultaneously maximal and minimal elements, are able to move both as XPs and as heads. The chapter argues that cliticization is head movement and explains why that is both allowed and required based on two central ideas: That of a word as phase and that of defective goal. It shows that cliticization can have semantic effects and that it cannot be reduced to A-movement combined with some special morphophonological operation by comparing cliticization and Scandinavian object shift. The chapter also considers cliticization as head-to-head incorporation and offers a general account of verb movement.

Keywords:   A-over-A Condition, head movement, minimal categories, maximal categories, clitics, cliticization, semantic effects, object shift, defective goal, incorporation

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