This chapter begins with a definition of the para-natural kind, which is an absence defined by a natural kind. As scientists discover new natural kinds, they also discover new para-natural kinds—although para-reflections and para-refractions have been widely overlooked. There is little pressure to correct the marginal confusions between reflections and para-reflections because the generalizations that govern one work well for the other; the positive transfer of learning from one to the other is symmetrical. An absence is not a substance and is consequently not a natural kind, although many of its features can also be found in natural kinds that it can often be mistaken as one. Para-natural kinds also differ from substances that are defined in opposition to other natural kinds.
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