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Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development$
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Norbert Francis

Print publication date: 2011

Print ISBN-13: 9780262016391

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: August 2013

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262016391.001.0001

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Results and Prospects

(p.252) (p.253) 10 Conclusion
Bilingual Competence and Bilingual Proficiency in Child Development

Norbert Francis

The MIT Press

This chapter examines, within the framework of modularity, whole-language and naturalistic approaches to literacy and second language (L2) learning as well as the proposed model of bilingual competence and bilingual proficiency. It also considers aspects of language loss as a shift affecting an entire speech community and future prospects for advances in the field of bilingualism. It first explores how the evolution toward bilingualism, and then toward a new monolingualism, affects domains of knowledge associated with the displaced language. It then looks at what is natural and unnatural in language learning, reading subskills and specific reading disability, first language (L1)–L2 autonomy, and L1–L2 interaction. The chapter concludes with some reflections on language and culture.

Keywords:   modularity, literacy, language learning, bilingual competence, bilingual proficiency, language loss, bilingualism, monolingualism, reading, culture

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