This chapter discusses inverse scope, focusing on the universal quantifier determiners every and each, and their relatives. It examines how true universal quantifiers invert scope in both right- and left-branching derivations and looks at examples which seem to allow a universal to invert scope over a matrix indefinite from inside that indefinite’s noun modifier. The chapter also explains how inverse-scoping universals support bound-variable anaphora, the phenomenon known as “Frozen” Scope, “intermediate”-scope readings for sentences with more than two quantifiers, asymmetric scope in English embedded universal subjects, and asymmetric scope in German and Dutch. It concludes with a discussion of why nonuniversal quantifiers do not invert.
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