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Internet SuccessA Study of Open-Source Software Commons$

Charles M. Schweik and Robert C. English

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780262017251

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: August 2013

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262017251.001.0001

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(p.343) Index

(p.343) Index

Source:
Internet Success
Publisher:
The MIT Press
Abandonment, OSS, 42–44, 101. See Classification
central research question, 7
classification, 139–141
data used, 138–139
defining, 10, 129–142
growth stage, 135–137
initiation stage, 135–137
measuring and operationalizing, 134–141
Academic and scientific motivations, 32–33
Action arena, 40
Activity index, 131
Advertising, 211, 304
Africa, 28
Aggregation rule hypothesis, 253
Apache, 7, 21, 30, 32, 34, 35
Apache Software Foundation, 34, 35
Architectural design, 59, 203, 283
Asia, 28
Asset heterogeneity, 72, 116, 229–230
Benevolent dictatorship, 112, 254
Benkler, Yochai, 17, 44
BerliOS, 29, 131
Berlios.net, 79
Book’s Web site, 101
Bounded rationality, theory of, 44
Bowles, Samuel, 6
Boyle, Jamie, 7
Brazil, 27, 29
Brooks, Frederick, 74–75
Brooks’s Law, 74–75, 170
Bug report, 86
Bug tracking, 64–65
Business models, OSS, 20–24
Business motivations, 19, 20, 24
Campus Computing Project survey, 32
Canonical Ltd., 21
Case study, OSGeo, 101–128
Categorical variables, 144, 152–158
Causal factors, 263, 274, 276, 296
China, 29
Chi-square, 198, 202
CiviCRM, 32
Classification, 139–142, 181–183. See also Abandonment, OSS; Success, OSS
accuracy, 140–142
validation, 140–141, 182
Classification trees, 159–162, 258, 259–261, 267–270
how to interpret, 160, 162
initiation stage example, 11.1
initiation stage, major variables, 261
growth stage examples, 166, 270
growth stage, major variables, 268
Code repository, 63–64
Code sprints, 70
Collaboration, 4, 6, 180, 281
(p.344) Collaborative infrastructure, 60, 63, 169–170, 211, 284, 287
Collective action, 8, 10, 41, 281, 306
Collective action model, 47
Committers, 47, 92
Common-property regime, 17, 36
Commons, 7, 15–18, 36, 109
Communication technologies, 65–66
Community, 192, 193, 304, 305
findings, growth stage, 265–266, 267, 273, 295
findings, initiation stage, 259, 260–261
Community attributes, 39, 66–79, 126, 213–239
Competition, 60, 62, 127
Complexity, 278, 285, 286, 288
academic literature, 59
hypotheses about, 208–209
Conflict, 10, 34, 64, 72, 90
academic literature, 34, 54, 67
variable, 191, 192, 266, 269
Confusion matrix, 162, 258, 262, 269, 272
Consensus, 120
Consumers, advice on OSS, 305
Contingency table, 201
described, 201–203
summarized results, community attributes, 214–217, 232–233
summarized results, institutional attributes, 251
summarized results, technological attributes, 204–206
Copyleft, 5
Coral reefs, 308
Core team hypothesis, 75, 170
Correctly classified, 140, 162, 260, 270
Creative Commons, 308
Crowston, Kevin, 70, 82, 141, 312
Current and delayed costs, 54
Current benefits, 50–52
Data collection date, 138
Database environment, 156
Data limitations, 158, 312
David, Paul, 49
Debian hypothesis, 98, 287
Debian Linux, 34, 92–97, 132
Deek, Fadi, 20
Dependent variable, 129, 136, 146, 179, 181, 258
Design, architectural, 59, 203, 283
Developer, OSS, 44–54. See also Motivations and OSS
continuity, project knowledge, 46, 222, 260–261, 265–266
demographics, 45, 131
geographic distribution of, 45
motivations, summary of, 287, 289, 305
paid/volunteer, 45, 194, 195, 244–245, 265
technical skill, 46, 220–223, 265, 278, 287, 289
Developers. See Developer, OSS
Digital object, 3
Distributors, 21
Documentation, 58, 65, 206, 264
findings, 295–296, 304, 305
Downloads, 267
definition, 139, 192, 193, 258
findings, 293–294, 305
Drupal, 30, 35
Drupal Association, 35
Dspace, 32
Dual-licensing, 23
Eclipse, 23, 24
Economic institutions and OSS, 6, 280, 297
Ecosystem, OSS, 10, 15–16, 103
Education level, 221, 278
Edwards, Richard, 6
Email, in OSS projects, 65, 67, 118
software requirement “informalisms,” 58
version control and, 64
Enabling technologies, 19–24
Enclosure movement, 31
Epistemic communities, 69
Europe, 6, 28
(p.345) Face-to-face meetings, 70, 117, 234–235, 290, 306
Ferrarro, Fabrizio, 92–97
Financial index, 192, 193
Financial motivation, 218–220, 289
Financing, 68, 76–78. See also Community attributes
findings, 238–239, 265, 278, 284, 305
heterogeneity and, 114–116
OSGeo and, 121, 127
Findings. See Research results
Firefox, 43
First release date, 138
FLOSSMetrics, 131
FLOSSmole project, 130, 137–138
FLOSS-US survey, 45. See also Surveys
Fogel, Karl, 24, 64, 77–78
Forum posts, 151, 192, 258
Found_member_on_Internet, 278–279
Frameworks, 37–38
Free BSD Foundation, 34
Free/libre, 5
Free/libre and OSS developers survey, 45
Freepository, 131
Free rider, 48
Free Software Foundation (FSF), 5, 34, 87, 157
Freshmeat.net, 79
Friction Hypothesis, 250, 287
Functionality plan, 207, 209, 283
Future research ideas, 313
Geographic Information System (GIS), 10, 29, 103
Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS), 105
Germany, 27, 29
Ghosh, Rishab Aiyer, 6
Gini index, 160, 164, 261
GitHub, 131
Global problems, 4, 6, 308–312
GNU General Public License (GPL), 5, 22, 34, 87
Google, 22, 24
Google code, 131
Governance, 6, 39, 192, 194
academic literature, 82–84
Debian Linux, 92–97
democratic, 253, 288
findings, 240–255, 305
open content and, 311
Government motivations, 25–27
Government Open Code Consortium, 25
Government Open Source Policies Report, 28
GPL incompatible, 22, 157, 171–172
Granularity, 59–60, 105, 208, 284
Group heterogeneity. See Heterogeneity, group
Group size, 68, 74–76, 112, 116
findings, 170–172, 237–238, 296, 305, 307
open content and, 310
Growth stage, 135–137, 253
definition, 41–45
findings, 166, 173, 265–279, 293–297
Hacker ethic, 15
Heterogeneity, group, 224–230, 285, 287, 290, 310
academic literature, 71–73, 113
asset, 229
hypotheses about, 68
interest, 228
sociocultural, 225
Hierarchy, 112
Hours, 194, 195, 259, 263, 304
Hybrid Proprietary Open Model, 21–22
Hypertext markup language (HTML), 3
(p.346) Hypotheses, 18, 55
findings, community attributes, 213–239
findings, institutional attributes, 239–255
findings, summary, 286–290
findings, technological attributes, 203–213
supported, 168–169
table 3.2, community attributes, 55
table 4.1, technological attributes, 60
table 4.2, community attributes, 68
table 5.5, institutional attributes, 98
unsupported, 169, 286, 288
IBM, 21, 23, 24
Indeterminate, growth, 135–137
Indeterminate, initiation, 135–137
Informalisms, 58
Initiation stage, 135–137
definition, 41–44
findings, 164, 173, 259–266, 286–293
Innovation, 3, 4, 47–49
Institutional analysis, 85
Institutional Analysis and Development framework (IAD), 8, 38–44, 84–85, 93
Institutional design, 85
Institutionalist, 109
Institutions, OSS, 18, 81–99, 118–125, 239–255
analyzing, 84–85
default, 90
institutions as “friction,” 88
OSGeo and, 127
OSS licenses, 87, 248
social norms, 85–87, 120
summary, 285–286, 305, 307
Intended audience, 152
Interactive Web, 5
Interest heterogeneity, 72, 228–229
Internet Relay Chat (IRC), 58, 65, 118
Interoperability, 25
Interviews, 101, 103, 110–125, 133–134
Kappa, 162, 258
KDE desktop, 29
Key element of analysis, 40, 44
Key research question, 7
Kiser, Larry, 38
Knowledge commons, 47
Knowledge continuity, 46, 222, 260–261, 265–266
Krishamurthy, Sandeep, 20
Last release date, 138
Latin American, 28
Leadership, 112, 194, 195. See also Community attributes
academic literature, 66–68, 261
composition of, 264
findings, growth stage, 172, 230–233, 267, 275
findings, initiation stage, 172, 230–233, 263
open content and, 310
Learning, 51, 53, 223
Lerner, Josh, 49
License. See Project license
Licensing, 17, 22, 34, 87, 157
findings, 171–172
LimeSurvey, 21, 184
Linus’s Law, 42, 75, 170
Linux, 21, 22, 29, 42
Linux Foundation, 35
Logistic regression, 159, 258, 261, 270–272
growth state model, 271
initiation stage model, 262
(p.347) Mailman, 32
Mandriva, 21
Mapserver Foundation, 104
Marketing, 68, 78–79
findings, 239, 260–261, 265–266, 304
open content and, 310
Markus, M. Lynne, 83–84
Massachusetts, Commonwealth of, 26
McHugh, James, 20
MediaWiki, 4
Meritocracies, 47
Microsoft, 21
Middle East, 28
Mill, John Stewart, 109
Missing data, 258
MIT Open Courseware, 308
Models, 37–40
Modularity. See Variables, independent
Moodle, 32
Motivations and OSS, 19, 47–54, 287, 306
academic and scientific motivations, 32–33
business motivations, 19, 20, 24
developer, 213–224, 287, 289
emotional distress, 54
enjoyment, 51
financial, 218–220, 289
government motivations, 25–27
hacker ethic, reciprocity and helping the OS cause, 52, 289
learning and skill building, 51, 53, 223,
nonprofit motivations, 30, 31
opportunity cost, 53
serious leisure, 51, 220, 289, 306
signaling, 53, 223, 289
signaling and/or ego gratification, 51–52
social rewards, 51
solving a need, user-centered innovation, 50, 213, 289
Mozilla, 23, 43, 78
MySQL AB, 23, 30, 43
Need, for OSS, 194, 195, 265, 306
Netscape, 3, 23, 43
New digital commons, 8
Node, classification tree, 160
Nonfindings, 173, 265–266, 277–279. See also Research results
Nongovernmental organization (NGO), 113
Nonprofit foundations, 34–35, 97, 103–128
Nonprofit motivations and OSS, 30, 31
North America, 28
North, Douglass, 82
Notre Dame, University. See University of Notre Dame repository
Novell, 21
Null model, 162
Number of releases, 138
Numerical variables, 144–152
Odds ratio, 202
Olson, Mancur, 74–75
Olson’s Group Size Paradox, 74–75, 170
O’Mahony, Siobhan, 34–35, 39, 79, 92–97
Open Bioinformatics Foundation, 33
Open content, 4, 308–312
OpenDocument Format (ODF), 27, 29
Open Geospatial Consortium, 105
Openness, 3, 281
driver for innovation, 4
power of, 3–4, 6
Open-Source Geospatial Foundation (OSGeo), 10, 103–127
Open Source Initiative (OSI), 34
Open-Source Software, 5. See also Abandonment, OSS; Developer, OSS; Institutions, OSS; Projects, OSS; Research results; Success, OSS; Variables, independent
business models, oss, 20–24
ecosystem, 15–16, 103
longitudinal stages and trajectories, 41
procurement policy, 26–27
why study it, 5–7
(p.348) Open Source Software Institute, 35
Open-source software service providers, 20–21
Open standards, 26
Operating system, 153
Operationalizing. 134–141. See also Abandonment, OSS; Success, OSS
Oracle, 23
O’Reilly, Tim, 3
OS_experience, 194, 195, 265, 276, 294
OSGeo case study, 101–128
analysis, 125
community attributes, 126
finances, 105
history, 105
institutional attributes, 126–127
institutional structure, 105–108
research methods, 108
OSS commons story, 295–297
OSS movement, 52, 223–224
Ostrom, Elinor, 38, 83, 89–92
Outcomes, IAD Framework, 40
Page visits, 151
Paid or volunteer index, 194, 195, 244–245, 265
Peer-production common property, 17
Perens, Bruce, 19, 33
Perl Foundation, 34
PloneGov, 25
Population of OSS projects, 33, 84, 131–133, 180, 303, 312–313
Practical implications of our study, 304–305
Private collective model, 48
Private investment model, 47
Programming language, 155, 297
Programming skill, 220–223, 265, 278, 287, 289
Project Information Index, 152, 168, 259, 264
Project license, 17, 22, 34, 87, 248
findings, 297
variable definition, 157
Project life span, 138
Project topic, 156–157, 165, 297
Project Web site, 63, 130, 212, 239
findings, 295–296, 304, 305
Projects, OSS, 131–132. See also Classification
administrator, 130, 144–145, 185
number of, 131–132, 183
purging of, 158
Proprietary software, 5, 208
Public goods, 7, 16
Public policy, 26–29, 311
Random forests, 163
Raymond, Eric, 34, 75, 88–89, 132
Really Simple Syndication (RSS), 78
Reciprocity, 68, 70, 126
definition, 52
hypotheses about, 68, 236–238
OSGeo and, 117–118
summary, 290
Red Hat, 21
Requirements, software, 58–59, 203
Research methods, 108–110, 159–163
case study, 108–110
chi-square, 198, 202
classification trees, 159–162, 258, 259–261, 267–270
contingency tables, 201
logistic regression, 159, 258, 261, 270–272
multivariate models, 257
OSGeo and, 108
random forests, 163
stepwise regression, 258, 267
survey, 183–187
variable importance plots (VIP), 163
Research questions, 7
answering, 8–9, 169, 206–255
central question, 7
table 2.1, 36
(p.349) table 4.1, 60
table 5.5, 98
Research results, 164–173, 203–255, 262–279, 283–297
causal factors, 263, 274, 276, 296
community attributes, 213–239
community, building, 173
institutional attributes, 239–255, 285–286, 305
multivariate models, growth stage, 266–279, 293–297
multivariate models, initiation stage, 260–266, 292–293
multivariate models, summary, 290–297
nonfindings, growth stage, 173, 277–279
nonfindings, initiation stage, 173, 265–266
practical implications, 303–305
sourceforge data alone, growth stage, 166
sourceforge data alone, initiation stage, 164
summary, “OSS commons story,” 295–297
summary, tables 8.7, 12.2, 12.3, 174–176, 298–299
technological attributes, 203–213
theoretical implications, 305–308
variables (see Variables, independent)
Results. See Research results
Riehle, Dirk, 20, 77
Rischard, Jean-Fran ç ois, 4
Roosevelt, Frank, 6
Rules, institutional, 240–255. See also Institutions, OSS
aggregation rules, 90, 96, 106, 120, 245
boundary rules, 90, 96, 106, 120, 245
choice rules, 90, 106, 107, 120, 245
collective choice, 89, 96, 118–120
constitutional-level, 89, 96, 118–120
information rules, 90, 107
operational level, 89, 96, 118–120, 240
payoff rules, 90, 107, 121
position rules, 90, 96, 106, 107
scope rules, 90, 107
table 5.4, 95
table 6.1, 106–107
Sakai, 32
Sampling strategies, 160–161, 184–186
Savannah, 131
Scacchi, Walt, 58, 67
Science Commons, 308
Sendmail, 23
Serious leisure, 51, 220, 289, 306
Shapiro, Joseph, 49
ShareSource, 131
Singapore, 27
Skill level. See Variables, independent
Social capital, 117, 127, 306
academic literature, 69–71
hypotheses, research questions, results, 68, 234–237, 290
Social norms, 85–87, 120
Sociocultural heterogeneity, 71, 72, 116, 225–228
Software development firms, 22–23
Software dumping, 43
Software in the Public Interest (SPI), 34, 35
Software requirements, 58–59, 203
SourceForge Inc., 179
SourceForge.net (SF), 6, 130–133, 182
Sourceforge Research Data Archive, 130
data, 130, 143, 144
representative of open-source projects, 131
summary of chapter 8 findings, 174–176, 282–283
Spinout, 23, 43, 112
Splitting variable, 160
Sponsors, 97, 246
Stages and trajectories of OSS commons, 41
(p.350) Stallman, Richard, 5, 34
Statistical methods, 163. See also Research methods, 163
Stepwise regression, 258, 267
Story, OSS commons, 295–297
Study limitations, 312–313
Success, growth, 135–137
Success, initiation, 135–137
Success, OSS, 42–44, 101
central research question, 7
classification, 139–141 (see also Classification)
data used, 138–139
defining, 10, 129–142
measuring and operationalizing, 134–141
table 7.1, 136
Summer of Code, 24
Sun Microsystems, 23
Supported hypotheses, 168–169
Survey methods, 183–187
Survey on Free/Libre and Open-Source Success, 10, 179–199
administration, 186–187
goals, 179–181
implications of results, 303–308
pretest, 184
responses and response rate, 187–190
sampling strategy, 184–186
variables and indexes, new, 190–199
Surveys, 10, 32, 45, 179–199
System integrators, 20
TCP/IP, 26
Technological attributes, 39, 57–66, 125, 203–213. See also Research results
TerraLib, 29
Theoretical implications of our study, 305–308
Theories, 37–39
Tirole, Jean, 49
Total cost-of-ownership, 30
Tracker Reports, 145, 196, 197, 258, 273, 294
Tragedy of the commons, 18
Trust, 69–70, 287
academic literature, 69–70
findings, 117, 235–236, 290, 312
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 110
Ubuntu, 21
United Kingdom, 28
University of Notre Dame repository, 130, 177, 180, 190, 257
User interface. See Variables, independent
User-driven innovation, 50, 153, 183, 266
hypothesis, 55, 116, 213
User involvement, 66
Utility, 61–62, 196, 197
findings about, 172, 209–211, 283, 286
hypotheses about, 60
Variable importance plots, 163–164
growth stage example, 167
initiation stage example, 165
Variables, independent, 144. See also Dependent variable
advertising, 211, 304
all variables, 146–150, 192–197 (see tables 8.1, 8.2, 9.6)
architectural design, 59, 203, 283
asset heterogeneity, 72, 116, 229–230
categorical variables, 144, 152–158
collaborative infrastructure, 60, 63, 169–170, 212, 284, 287
community (see Community)
competition, 211, 284, 287, 305
complexity, 59, 208–209, 278, 286, 288
conflict (see Conflict)
continuity, knowledge, 222, 260–261, 265–266
data limitations, 158, 312
database environment, 156
developers, 145
(p.351) documentation (see Documentation)
downloads (see Downloads)
education index, 221, 278
face-to-face meetings, 70, 117, 234–235, 290, 306
financial_index, 192, 193
financial motivation, 218–220, 289
financing (see Financing)
forum posts, 151, 192, 258
found_member_on_Internet, 278–279
functionality, 207, 209, 283
geographic proximity, 68, 117, 225, 237
goals, 207, 283, 305
governance (see Governance)
granularity, 59–60, 105, 208, 284
group size (see Group size)
heterogeneity, group, 224–230, 285, 287, 290, 310
hours, 194, 195, 259, 263, 304
intended audience, 152, 154
interest heterogeneity, 72, 228–229
leadership (see Leadership)
learning, 51, 53, 223
license (see Project license)
marketing (see Marketing)
missing variables, 173
modularity, 59–60, 207, 278, 286, 288
motivations (see Motivations and OSS)
need, for OSS, 194, 195, 265, 306
numerical variables, 144–152
operating system, 153
OSS experience, 194, 195, 265, 276, 294
OSS movement, 223–224
page visits, 151
paid or volunteer index, 194, 195, 244–245, 265
programming language, 155, 297
project information index, 152, 168, 259, 264
project license (see Project license)
project topic, 156–157, 297
Project Web site (see Project Web site)
reciprocity (see Reciprocity)
requirements, software, 58–59, 203
rule_ops index, 196, 197, 240
serious leisure, 51, 220, 289, 306
signaling, 53, 223
skill level, 220–223, 265, 278, 287, 289
social capital (see Social capital)
sociocultural heterogeneity, 71, 72, 116, 225–228
study dictionary, 146–149
survey created variables, table 9.6, 192–197
tracker reports (see Tracker Reports)
trust (see Trust)
use of software, 213–218
user interface, 156–157
utility (see Utility)
writing skills, 222, 279
Vendor lock-in, 27
Versioning systems, 63–64, 92, 119
Virtual teams and communities, 8, 59, 67, 70
findings, 127, 235, 309
Volunteers, in OSS projects, 116. See also Motivations and OSS
hypotheses about, 18, 98
motivations of, 49, 77
number of, 15
Von Hippel, Eric, 47–49, 213, 289
Von Krogh, Georg, 47–49
Web 2.0, 5
Weber, Steven, 49
WIDI survey, 45
Wikipedia, 4, 308
World Wide Web, 3
Writing skills. See Variables, independent
Yahoo!, 22
YouTube, 4, 308 (p.352)