This chapter discusses interactions of motivation with perception and cognition. Earlier motivation and attention studies focused on investigating changes in response criterion and whether subjects employed an optimal decision criterion. These effects are qualitatively different from those reviewed in this chapter; for example, effects such as increased visual sensitivity (d-prime) in attention tasks and target/distractor effects. It is argued that recent findings fly in the face of traditional psychological models, which describe motivation as involving a global activation that varies independently of control demands and behavior direction. The effects of motivation discussed in this chapter, far from being global, reflect selective mechanisms that are manifested both behaviorally and neurally.
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