This chapter discusses the overall global institutional architecture of earth system governance, with particular emphasis on the current fragmentation of the system. It conceptualizes architecture as the overarching system of intergovernmental and nonstate institutions operating in a governance domain, that is, the institutional framework within which agents operate. It considers the increasing institutional fragmentation within earth system governance, and between earth system and economic governance, citing climate governance as an example. It also examines the consequences of such fragmentation before proposing a number of reform options to enhance the overall consistency and coherence of earth system governance, such as increasing the coordination and integration of governance mechanisms and institutions and bringing them under the overall umbrella of a World Environment Organization, and creating a high-level UN Sustainable Development Council.
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