This chapter focuses on adaptiveness as a dimension of effective earth system governance, with particular emphasis on the requirements of global adaptation governance. It considers core dilemmas such as adaptability versus stability, effectiveness versus legitimacy, and effectiveness versus fairness in global governance arrangements. The focus is on drastic earth system transformations, especially global warming that exceeds 2 degrees Celsius compared to preindustrial levels. As one example of global adaptation governance, the chapter looks at the governance of climate-related migration wherein large numbers of people might be forced to leave their homes in the second half of the century due to climate change. It then proposes a system of global governance that could cope with substantially increased numbers of climate migrants due to earth system disruptions, including sea level rise and more frequent or more severe droughts and extreme weather events.
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