Scaling Civic Ecology Practices Up and Out
Three general steps move civic ecology practices from small local innovations to broader policy innovations: giving a label to the phenomenon (in our case “civic ecology”); becoming more effective as local providers of ecosystem services and contributors to community well-being through partnerships with scientists; and government and larger NGOs formulating policies that allow civic ecology practices to spread. Civic ecology practices are small social or “social-ecological innovations,” whereas larger NGOs and government agencies are policy entrepreneurs who shape the policy environment. Policy entrepreneurs can also bridge between multiple civic ecology practices and larger management initiatives to form regional adaptive and collaborative resource management systems.
Keywords: Friends of Mitchell Park, Adaptive co-management, Adaptive management, Collaborative management, New York City community gardens, Monitoring civic ecology practices, Bronx River restoration, Bronx River Alliance, Bridging organizations
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