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Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases$

Jerome O. Nriagu and Eric P. Skaar

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780262029193

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: May 2016

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262029193.001.0001

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(p.477) Subject Index

(p.477) Subject Index

Source:
Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases
Publisher:
The MIT Press
ABC transport 21–25, 30, 31, 51, 117
absorption edge 329, 331, 382, 392
Acrodermatitis enteropathica 134, 373
adenoviruses 139, 188
adiponectin 190, 195
aerobactin 34, 35, 46
age-related macular degeneration 135
aging 125–146, 133, 201
agricultural practices 140, 176, 272, 280, 281
fertilizers 127, 143, 144, 173, 183, 250
albumin 19, 20, 32, 127, 128, 131, 134, 345
allergic contact dermatitis 127, 241, 301, 305, 313
aluminum 126, 140, 141, 173, 175, 205, 258, 276, 301
Alzheimer disease 95, 130, 141, 178, 182, 204
amino acid metabolism 14, 202, 233
amoebiasis 225
anemia 144, 145, 151, 152, 208, 210, 211, 223, 276
Fe-deficiency 96, 130, 179, 191, 204, 274
pernicious 204
sickle cell 373
antibacterial coatings 265
antibiotic resistance 53, 263, 265
anticancer implants 269
antimicrobial immune effector function 152–156, 213
antimony 162, 239, 251, 287, 303
health impacts 175, 241
industrial applications 248, 249
antiparasitic drugs 161–172, 225
apoferritin 32
apo-transferrin 18, 19, 28
arsenic 53, 121, 126, 135, 139, 144, 175, 176, 191, 195, 229, 236, 272, 276, 297, 302
DALYs 274
early life exposure 174, 291, 292
immune suppression 140, 275
obesogenicity 192
Salvarsan 161
arsenobetaine 229
arthritis 129, 145, 307
Kashin-Beck disease 133, 146
metal-based drugs 162, 224, 225
osteo- 133, 146
rheumatoid 144, 201, 225
asthma 127, 240, 305
atherosclerosis 182
ATP production 14, 44, 259
Auger electron emission 329, 330, 379, 382, 390
autoimmunity 4, 152, 218, 302, 304
autometallography 332, 381
automotive 287
Azotobacter vinelandii 54
Bacillus anthracis 46, 363
Bacillus subtilis 78
bacterial infection 3, 6, 30–33, 35, 53, 154, 187, 188, 205, 212, 261, 263, 265
role of selenium 222, 223
role of zinc 200, 216, 219
bacterial metal homeostasis, mechanisms of 57–82
bacterioferritin (BFR) 53, 54, 63, 316, 317
benchtop X-ray fluorescence (XRF) 323, 332, 379
beryllium 287, 303, 331
bioavailability 27, 32, 39, 52, 76, 83, 89–93, 95, 100, 117, 137, 202, 224, 288, 299
biofilms 56, 121
formation 223, 261, 262, 265, 293, 301
bioluminescence imaging 360, 361, 363, 376
biomarkers 175, 177, 191, 271, 278–280, 282, 285, 296–298, 384
bipolar disorder 201
blackfoot disease 135
(p.478) body fluids, metalloproteomics of 344–348
boron 280, 304
Borrelia burgdorferi 44, 119
Bradyrhizobium japonicum 67, 70, 71, 119
breastfeeding. See nursing
bubonic plague 36, 111
burden of disease, roles of metals 1, 7, 157, 185, 219, 271, 273–277
cadmium 140, 173, 175–177, 192, 195, 205, 229, 272, 277, 294, 302, 330, 364
epigentic effects 292
health impacts 94, 126, 135, 174, 273
interaction with arsenic 236
resistance 51
toxicity 95
Caenorhabditis elegans 105, 112
calcitonin 194
calcium 103, 129, 131, 202, 218, 231, 354, 355, 359
metabolism 128
calprotectin 20, 32, 111, 158, 180, 202, 205, 206, 276, 373, 391
Campylobacter jejuni 31, 53, 117
cancer 130, 133, 135, 137, 144–146, 149, 173, 182, 200, 258
chronic myeloid leukemia 174
metal-based drugs 224, 225
role of nanometals 268, 269
role of selenium 231
therapy 161, 162, 201, 215, 257, 367
Candida albicans 112, 114, 293, 307
capillary electrophoresis 345, 346
carbon monoxide 6, 172, 199, 201, 203, 208–210
cardiovascular disease 133, 137, 173, 175, 182, 187, 232, 234, 260, 273, 277
carotenoids 195
Caulis Spatholobi 96
CBA efflux system 50, 51
cell lystates, metalloproteomics of 344–348
cerium 246, 271, 293, 306
ceruloplasmin 19, 128, 157, 211, 216, 279
Chagas disease 6, 161, 163, 172, 200, 225
Chlamydia 155, 156, 188, 213, 214
chloroquine 121, 168–171, 200, 225, 226
chromium 14, 126, 136, 143, 144, 174, 175, 200, 201, 231, 258, 287, 301
epigentic effects 292
medical implants 260, 268
RDA 126
chronic disease 1, 136, 152, 176, 185, 202, 211, 277, 298
cigarette smoking. See smoking
cisplatin 162, 166, 171, 224
citrate 44, 64, 65, 68, 91, 129, 177, 207
climate change 7, 271, 288–290, 300
Clostridium difficile 139, 178
clotrimazole (CTZ) 164, 165
cobalamin 14, 16–18, 22–24, 44, 177, 368
cobalt 14, 44, 49, 55, 94, 125, 127, 138, 139, 144, 173, 177, 200, 304
content in E. coli 41, 42
detecting 318, 319
medical implants 258, 268
toxicity 128, 204
coexposure 1, 2, 4, 7, 274–279, 292, 297, 300
colorimetric metalloprotein detection 318, 319, 322
common cold 135, 139
competition 2, 4, 13, 17, 25, 40, 42, 78, 101, 201, 202, 271
among bacteria 30, 31
in vivo experiments 116
microbal 29–38
role of the host 117
thermodynamic 105
computed tomography (CT) 364, 384. See also single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)
cooking methods 174, 289
coordination compounds 161, 164, 166, 169, 172, 200, 225, 226, 347
(p.479) copper 45, 57, 59, 72–76, 87, 125, 138, 144, 166, 173, 192, 200, 214–216, 225, 287, 301, 355
chaperone systems 59, 102, 106
content in E. coli 41
cytotoxicity 258
deficiency 3, 128, 157, 215
homeostasis 3, 14, 157, 199
overload 95, 114, 204, 215
RDA 126, 223
relative bioavailability 93
resistance 21, 52, 53, 74, 216
toxicity 72–74, 114, 121, 178
transport 16–19, 214, 215
upper intake levels 91, 224
Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) 14, 105, 119, 128, 157, 178, 192, 211, 214
Corynebacteria 64
coxsackievirus B3 138, 222, 275
coxsackievirus B468 188
Crohn disease 151
cryo-ultramicrotomy 324
Cryptococcus neoformans 113, 114, 216
cysteines 52, 74, 76, 80, 103, 108, 120, 233, 235, 352, 369, 372
cytochrome c oxidase 14, 45, 51, 128
cytoplasmic metal export 50–53
dengue fever 285, 287, 288
dental applications 181, 223, 257
fillings 140, 182
implants 260–269
dental caries 284
dermatitis 127, 134, 137, 144, 145, 206, 240, 241, 301, 305, 313
gender differences 182
detoxification 15, 41, 46, 47, 50–55, 110, 113, 174, 205, 230, 235, 283
diabetes 130, 136, 143, 145, 185, 190, 193, 195, 196
metal-based drugs 162
role of arsenic 191, 192
type 2 182, 184, 191, 194
diarrhea 2, 83, 139, 144–146, 154, 184, 271
Fe poisoning 130
role of zinc 118, 134, 219, 273
diet 126, 127, 143, 173–179, 281, 285, 298, 368
consumption of fast foods 7, 143, 186, 290, 291, 300
nutritional value of food 127, 280, 281
Western-style 7, 183, 185, 186, 300
dietary reference intake (DRI) system 84, 85, 126
differential washout 334–335
divalent metal-binding protein 59–62
divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) 16, 94, 128, 129, 151, 153, 158, 207, 279
DNA-binding protein (Dps) 46, 54, 63, 67
DNA damage 37, 67, 73, 127, 195, 196, 259, 268, 269
DNA methylation 176, 291, 292
DNA synthesis 14, 29, 40, 44, 127, 132, 144, 147–149, 258, 293
drug resistance 7, 18, 271, 294, 300, 357
dysbiosis 181, 183, 289–291
dyshomeostasis 130, 138, 141, 178
dyslipidemia 141, 277
dyspepsia 141
dysprosium 244, 246, 307
Ebola 138
ecological niches 6, 29, 107–109, 377
effect on metal uptake 13–28
electron absorption techniques 323
electron affinity 62, 326, 350, 381
electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS) 328, 329, 382
electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy 344, 372, 392
electron transport 29, 44, 45, 179, 203
chain 14, 40
electrospray ionization 312, 347
desorption 352
element atlas (rat brain) 337, 338
element imaging 323–340
energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) 323, 331, 350, 379, 380
energy filtering transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) 324, 327–330, 382, 385, 392
(p.480) energy production 14, 39, 40, 62, 65, 127, 144
Enterobacter cloacae 261
enterobactin 31–36, 108, 110
Enterococcus faecalis 261
Enterococcus hirae 74, 75
environmental impacts 249–253, 286–295
environment-wide association studies 7, 297, 300
epigenetic effects 192, 217, 291, 292
erbium 246, 307
erythropoiesis 96, 129, 149, 152, 156, 177, 204, 214
Escherichia coli 43, 44, 57, 60, 64–66, 74, 119, 120, 139, 261, 302, 305, 315, 316
elemental content 41, 42, 45, 63, 68, 69, 73, 77
metal usage by 58–65
Mn regulation 71, 72
nanotherapy 293
Zn resistant 79
essential metals 1, 3, 14–19, 27, 38, 39, 45, 78, 83, 94, 125–135, 142–146, 148, 199, 200, 201–205
classification of 231
coexposure to toxic metals 4
competition for 13, 38
RDAs 84–88, 126
upper intake levels 87–92
europium 246, 305, 306
E-waste 252, 253
exposome 7, 296–298, 300
extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) 319, 329, 382
fatty acids 14, 127, 144, 177, 186
ferredoxin 46, 49
ferrochelatase 72, 120, 204
ferroportin 17–19, 129, 150–155, 203, 210, 212
ferroquine 161, 162, 170, 171, 226
fetotoxicity 137, 234
flavonoids 195
fluorescence-based sensors 354–360
fluorescence imaging 362, 363, 374
fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) 353
fluorescence spectroscopy 377
fluorimetric techniques 342
food 1, 17, 26, 89, 92, 95, 107, 140, 143, 186, 233, 271, 272
fast 7, 143, 186, 290, 291, 300
fortified 89, 95, 145, 146, 174, 179, 189, 191
Green Revolution 272, 281
industry 283, 292
infant formula 7, 181, 290, 300
nutritional value 127, 142, 280
processing 7, 173, 289, 300
security 288, 289
Friedreich’s ataxia 130
Fur 43, 63, 64, 66, 67, 70–72
Fura Red AMTM 355, 356
future research 5, 6, 19, 27, 28, 38, 46, 55, 56, 82, 112, 115, 117, 120, 121, 143, 168, 170, 172, 215, 242, 255, 273, 291, 297–300, 374–377
gadolinium 244, 246, 271, 293, 294, 306
gallium 38, 121, 276, 301, 303, 333
gasotransmitters 6, 199, 201, 203, 206, 208–210
gastrointestinal tract 17, 25, 26, 107, 108, 110, 112, 117, 132, 140, 184, 282, 289, 299
gender 85–88, 174, 175, 177, 179, 180, 182, 189, 285, 286, 368
genitourinary tract 20, 26, 27, 111, 112
genomics 5, 236, 237, 296, 311, 319, 320, 322
glutathione 42, 49, 80, 103, 171, 195, 233, 236, 372
peroxidase 15, 190, 205, 222, 235
glycolysis 40, 44, 64
gold 121, 162, 165–167, 225, 239, 287, 304, 349
health impacts 241, 274
industrial applications 247, 250, 275, 286
(p.481) substance flow analysis 245
toxicity 241
Gram-negative bacteria 21, 27, 32, 50, 51, 52, 156, 261, 301–304
impact of silver 259
metal transport 22
outer membrane 22–26, 50–52, 101
Gram-positive bacteria 21, 31, 46, 50, 51, 67, 261, 301–303
impact of silver 259
metal transport 22, 23, 25
Green Revolution 272, 281
gut microbiome 15, 17, 282–283
Haemophilus influenzae 31, 32, 37
Helicobacter pylori 108, 178, 182, 187, 188, 301
hematin 169, 170, 225
heme 20, 32, 43, 49, 54, 64, 70, 207–210
-hemopexin 24, 26, 108
synthesis 71, 120
hemoglobin 17, 20, 23, 24, 108, 110, 179, 203, 204, 207, 209, 373
-haptoglobin 23, 24, 26, 108, 111
hepatitis 138, 185, 187, 188, 285
hepcidin 18, 95, 96, 129, 150–153, 156, 179, 203, 210, 214
obesity-related 191
hephaestin 17, 18, 157, 203, 211
hereditary hemochromatosis 130, 156, 214
herpes simplex 139, 187, 188, 304, 307
histochemical techniques 332, 333, 385
Histoplasma capsulatum 157, 371
HIV 2, 4, 180, 187, 195, 277, 296
Fe overload 84
impact of cadmium 176, 277
impact of selenium 133, 138, 182, 232
nanotherapy 293
holmium 246, 307
homeostasis 13–19, 27, 103, 230
adaptable nature of 43
during development 125–146
mechanisms of bacterial metal 57–82
modeling of 372
host defense 2, 3, 8, 32, 46, 118, 154, 203, 208, 211, 242, 276, 279, 282, 295, 301–307. See also host tolerance, nutritional immunity
role of cobalt 139
role of copper 215
role of Fe export 155, 213
role of selenium 223
host resistance (to pathogens) 3, 7, 155, 188, 205, 207, 213, 223, 291, 294–296, 300, 373
role of zinc 6, 216–218
human development 125–146
hydrogenase 42, 45, 54, 105, 182
hydrogen peroxide 37, 43, 67–70, 153, 195
hyperferritinemia 149, 151, 152, 210
hyperglycemia 130, 185, 196
hyperkeratosis 135
hypocalcaemia 259
hypoferremia 149, 150, 152, 190, 191, 210
hypozincemia 190, 196, 221
immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) 311–313, 320
immune response 2, 3, 147–160, 186, 207, 211, 214, 223, 284, 304
gender differences 285
impact of iron 152–156, 212
implants 266–268
role of leptin 196
role of obesity 193, 194
role of zinc 218, 301
immunopathology 4, 296
immunotoxicity 4, 135, 276
implants 257, 260–269
inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) 8, 41, 102, 311, 313, 342–344
laser ablation 323–326
industrial applications 239–256, 286
infant health 131, 174, 181, 201, 277
formula feeding 7, 181, 290, 300
lung disease 133
National Children’s Studies 277
infectobesity 188
infertility 133, 146, 182
influenza 138, 175, 176, 187, 302
(p.482) inner electron shell transitions 328–332
insulin resistance 182, 183, 186, 193, 196
interferon (IFN) 153, 221
alpha 194
interleukin (IL) 153, 179, 206, 217
IL-1β‎ 291
IL-6 191, 194, 206, 213, 267, 302
iridium 165, 170
iron 15, 44, 59, 61–68, 79, 125, 145, 200, 203, 207–215, 276, 301, 330, 355
acquisition 26, 27, 29, 31, 35, 36, 107, 110, 111, 151
anemia 96, 130, 152, 179, 191, 274
avoiding deficiency 63–66
content in E. coli 41
deficiency 5, 7, 33, 94, 95, 121, 129, 130, 190, 195, 212
homeostasis 3, 14, 18, 19, 33, 153, 199, 204, 211
impact on immune response 152–156, 212
metabolism in inflammation 149–152
overload 33, 84, 95, 179, 208, 211
Prussian Blue staining 332, 381
RDA 85, 126, 223, 224
relative bioavailability 93
restriction 43, 65, 68, 69, 119
role in cell plasticity 148–149
-siderophore complex 23–25, 108
starvation 63, 68, 114, 115
storage 53, 54, 149, 152. See also ferritin
supplementation 30, 154, 157, 212
tolerable upper intake levels 89
toxicity 129, 130
Japan National Study on Children and the Environment 277
Kashin-Beck disease 133, 146
Keshan disease 94, 146
ketoconazole 164
Klebsiella pneumoniae 34, 35, 110, 188, 196
KNHANES studies 277
lactation. See nursing
lactobacilli 283, 284
Lactobacillus sakei 327
lactoferrin 19, 20, 24, 26, 29, 30, 32, 107, 110, 111, 206, 373, 386
lanthanum 201, 231, 246, 272, 293, 294, 305
laser ablation 8, 326, 343
Legionella 35, 152, 155, 211, 213
Leishmania 152, 155, 163, 166, 167, 211, 213
major 225
leishmaniasis 6, 139, 161–167, 172, 200, 201, 224, 225, 285, 287, 303
leprosy 139
leptin 188, 190, 193, 195, 196
leptospirosis 285
leukocytosis 130
life cycle assessment 251
lifestyle 143, 173–176, 185, 186, 193, 196, 281, 290, 297, 298
ligand pool 102, 103, 105
lipidomics 296
lipocalin 2 (Lcn 2) 31–36, 107–110, 156, 213, 214
obesity-related 191
liquid chromatography (LC) 34, 345, 346
2D 311, 312, 315
electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) 312
reversed phase 347
Listeria monocytogenes 109, 178, 188, 222, 339, 362
luminometric metalloprotein detection 318, 319
(p.483) lung infection 35, 111–114, 121, 133, 135, 137, 175, 287, 288
lutetium 246, 307
magnesium 68, 69, 173, 202, 260, 355, 359
dietary supplements 92
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) 201, 246, 306, 366, 374
malaria 2, 4, 6, 139, 152, 154, 161–163, 172, 185, 200, 208, 210, 271, 287, 288, 296, 373
chemotherapy 169
Fe overload 84, 212
increased risk for 274, 275
metal-based drugs 162, 168–172, 225, 226
new vaccine 169
Zn deficiency 83, 273
MALDI-MS 8, 312, 314, 334, 337, 342, 347, 351, 375
malnutrition 141, 143, 174, 202
manganese 15, 32, 46, 55, 57, 59, 65, 79, 125, 130, 131, 145, 174, 180, 200, 202, 205–207, 302
bioavailability 93
chemical properties 68–71
content in E. coli 41
deficiency 206
export 19
in infant formulas 290
MntH 65, 68, 70, 71, 111
MntR 69, 71, 72
overloading 120
RDA 126
restriction 119
SitABCD/YfeABCD 111
starvation 158
supplementation 145
mass spectrometry 299
medical device applications 257, 260–265, 269
melanin 114
meningitis 206, 285, 287
Menkes disease 128, 178, 204, 215
mercury 50, 52, 94, 126, 135, 140, 174, 192, 195, 205, 272, 277, 297, 302
methylated 94, 234, 274, 390
relationship to malaria 275
resistance 51, 52
sources of 286, 287
metabolic syndrome 194–196, 277
metabolomics 237, 298
metabonomics 236, 237, 296, 298
metal acquisition 2, 34–36, 43, 46, 116, 118
in microbes 19–25
in vertebrate host 13–28
metal availability 5, 57, 58, 71, 99, 100–106, 113, 200
measuring 112
microbiota influence 117–119
modeling 103
metal-based drugs 83, 161–172, 200, 224–226
metal deficiency 58, 83–98, 92, 119–121, 144–146. See also trace metal deficiency
metallochaperones 47–49, 101, 102, 105, 106, 230
role in protein metallation 105
metallome 7, 8, 311, 312, 342, 372
metallomics 5, 9, 46, 231, 237
metalloproteins 40, 46–49, 55, 61, 62, 102, 104, 230, 311
analyzing 314, 315
metalloproteome 45, 49, 55, 315
modeling 312, 369–371
metalloproteomics 55, 311–322, 342, 344
tissue sampling 348–352
metallothionein 52, 114, 216, 234, 236, 275, 285
metal–metal interaction 94–96
metal overload 57, 92, 94, 83–98, 120, 144–146
metal poisoning 94, 100, 104, 119–121, 130, 157, 241, 297
metal resistance 45, 50, 74, 109
mechanisms 51–53
metal restriction 2, 6, 99, 119–122
metal speciation 6, 8, 100, 102, 271, 343
computational modeling 372, 373
metal storage. See storage
(p.484) metal toxicity. See toxicity
metal uptake. See uptake
microbiome 17, 38, 200, 279, 281–286, 353
microbiota 99, 117–119
micronutrient deficiency 217, 280, 281
Minamata disease 94
mining 125, 137, 239, 242, 249, 250, 252, 287, 297
small-scale gold 275, 286, 302
MIRAGE 316–318, 320, 322, 346, 347, 386, 389, 390
mitochondrial respiration 148
molybdenum 14, 17, 49, 54, 55, 125, 132, 138, 145, 173, 180, 181, 204, 205, 280, 303, 316
content in E. coli 41
Mössbauer spectroscopy 344, 372
mucosal surfaces 13, 19, 20, 25–27, 31, 34, 38, 107, 108
mutagenesis 120, 391
mycobacterial infection 138, 156, 194, 213, 214, 287
Mycobacterium abscessus 188
Mycobacterium tuberculosis 53, 65, 109, 110, 188, 215, 303, 304, 339
myoglobin 179, 207, 210
nanometals 7, 257–270, 292, 293, 300
cancer treatment 268, 269
nanosilver 241, 253
NanoSIMS 324, 327, 328, 333, 349, 380, 385
near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) 329, 383, 385
Neisseria 107
gonorrhoeae 30, 301
meningitidis 37, 107, 187, 206
neodymium 244, 246, 306
nephrotoxicity 240
neurotoxicity 145, 234, 240
neutropenia 144, 215
NHANES studies 191, 277
nickel 25, 42–45, 54, 126, 136, 137, 145, 173, 181, 200, 205, 231, 287, 303
chaperone systems 59, 102, 106
content in E. coli 41
epigentic effects 292
nitric oxide 6, 153, 154, 196, 199, 201, 203, 206, 211, 302
formation 151, 195, 209, 213
interaction with heme 208–210
NMR spectrometers 375
nonessential metallic pollutants 140–141, 272, 287, 291
nonredox-active metals 15
NRAMP1 33, 109, 148, 155, 156, 158, 284
nursing 126, 136, 181, 184, 201, 290
nutrition 1, 50, 84, 92, 125, 141, 142, 277, 281, 404. See also diet, recommended dietary allowances (RDAs)
hidden hunger 280
infant 289, 290
nutritional immunity 2, 30, 113, 148, 149, 157, 199, 210, 372, 373
obesity 141, 142, 185–198, 277
pathogenesis 192, 193
oral microbiome 25, 283, 284
organotins 189, 304
orthopedic implants 257, 265–268
osteoarthritis 133, 146
osteoporosis 144, 268
oxidative stress 37, 63, 67, 71, 79, 80, 137, 157, 171, 176, 185, 186, 190–192, 195, 204, 223, 229, 234, 236, 259
OxyR transcription factor 67–69, 72
palladium 165–167, 239, 305, 349
health impacts 240
industrial flows 242, 243, 245
Parkinson disease 130, 131, 182
particle beam microscopy 328, 330, 333, 350, 400
pathogenesis of infectious disease 1, 5, 6, 9, 118, 185, 222, 271, 273, 277, 286, 297, 372
obesity-related 191
peptide deformylase 43, 69
periodontal infection 187, 284
(p.485) photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) 354, 355
photosynthesis 39, 40, 45
plant extracts 96
Plasmodia 168, 210, 214, 295, 373
platinosis 240
platinum 162, 166, 170, 225, 231, 239, 240, 272, 305, 349
industrial applications 242–244
platinum group of metals (PGMs) 250, 287
environmental impact 252
industrial applications 242–244, 253
recycling 255
pneumonia 32, 34, 38, 139, 187, 219, 262, 271
Zn deficiency 273
polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) surfaces 266, 269
polymer coatings 263
positron emission tomography (PET) 201, 364–366, 374, 375, 384, 386, 387
praseodymium 244, 246, 306
pregnancy 126, 129, 133, 136, 139, 141–143, 163, 175, 184, 201
preinfection metal exposure 113–116
primary metal production 242, 250, 253, 255. See also mining, smelting
promethium 246, 306
protein separation 8, 312, 314, 342, 345, 346
proteomics 5, 8, 76, 236, 237, 296, 345, 347, 371
Prussian Blue staining 332, 333, 381
Pseudomonas aeruginosa 38, 51, 52, 121, 150, 223, 261, 305, 391
nanotherapy 293
wax moth larvae infection model 30, 31
pyochelin 52, 110
pyoverdine 50, 52
Pyrococcus furiosus 315, 316, 319
radioactive metal isotopes 8, 246, 298, 299, 305, 315–318, 342
rare earth elements (REEs) 239, 241, 252, 255, 287, 293
global production 247, 254
industrial applications 244–247
reactive oxygen species 35, 37, 119, 127, 138, 199, 207, 210, 211, 259, 269, 293, 295
readily exchangeable metal 39, 41, 47, 101–106, 345, 371
recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) 6, 83–88, 126, 142, 178, 202, 223, 224, 232, 278, 279
recycling 239, 242–244, 247, 249–251, 253–255
iron 20, 149, 203, 208, 276
redox-active metals 14, 62, 157, 191, 195, 196
reference dose (RfD) 278
relative bioavailability 89, 90, 93, 224
resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) 51
resistance to infection 156, 199, 207, 214. See also host resistance (to pathogens)
respiratory tract 29, 32, 35, 110, 111, 131, 145, 178, 193
absorption 233
infections 2, 38, 83, 118, 139, 187, 219, 287, 288, 292, 302, 303
upper 26, 27, 37, 107
retinal disease 130
rheumatoid arthritis 144, 201, 225
rhodium 121, 165, 166, 225, 305
industrial applications 242, 243
ribonucleotide reductase 14, 40, 43, 44
Mn 65, 66, 69, 70
ruthenium 6, 121, 162, 166–169, 225, 231
salmochelin 34, 110
Salmonella 75, 156, 213, 214
enterica 110
typhimurium 68, 212
samarium 244, 246, 306
scandium 241, 246, 305
(p.486) scanning electron microscopy energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX) 323, 331, 333, 378, 382
scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) 328, 330, 382, 385
schistosomiasis 185, 201, 224, 274, 285
SDS-PAGE 311, 312, 314, 315
secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) 326–328, 334, 349, 350, 372, 380, 385, 392
secondary metal production 242, 249, 250
selenium 94, 125, 132, 146, 173, 183, 199, 200, 205, 231–233, 297, 299, 303
coatings 265
deficiency 5, 133, 138, 222, 223, 276
effect on Hg toxicity 229, 230, 234–236
RDA 84, 88, 126, 223
relative bioavailability 93
role in viral infections 222
supplementation 133, 138, 182, 222, 223, 225
upper intake levels 92, 224, 232
selenoproteins 132, 133, 182, 222, 231
sepsis 34, 139, 187, 188, 193, 194, 208, 209
sickle cell anemia 373
siderocalin 17, 26, 31, 107, 213, 373, 391
siderophore 17, 20, 21, 25, 26, 33–35, 50, 53, 63, 64, 108, 109
PDTC 52
production 27, 30, 34, 52, 110
signaling pathways 43, 209, 304, 374
Zn-regulated 218–221
SilE 50, 52
silver 121, 162, 166, 167, 174, 224, 239, 241, 251, 272, 287, 304
cytotoxicity 259, 260
industrial applications 248, 249
substance flow analysis 245
single nucleotide polymorphisms 373, 374
single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) 364–367, 374, 376, 384, 386, 391
size exclusion chromatography (SEC) 347, 356
skin pathologies 118, 127, 134, 137, 144, 205
sleeping disease 225
smelting 137, 242, 249, 250, 286, 287, 297
smoking 140, 173–176, 181, 277, 281, 287, 301
stable isotope tracers 8, 324, 342
Staphylococcus aureus 32, 37, 43, 115, 139, 178, 187, 188, 223, 261, 263, 294, 305, 363
nanotherapy 293
stimulated emission depletion (STED) laser fluorescence microscopy 354, 355
stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) 354, 355
storage 14, 19, 29, 39, 41, 47, 53–56, 101
Streptococcus pneumoniae 31, 32, 37, 38, 121, 188
Streptomyces coelicolor 78
stroke 182
substance flow analysis 242–244, 251
superoxide dismutase (SOD) 40, 43, 46, 65, 72, 105, 316
Cu/Zn 14, 105, 119, 128, 157, 178, 192, 211, 214
Fe 317
Mn 68, 69, 158, 202
superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) 265, 266
synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF) 319, 322, 332, 349
syphilis 121, 161
tandem mass spectrometry 343–345, 375
T cell proliferation 140, 154, 212
terbium 307
thallium 239, 251, 272, 287, 304
health impacts 241
industrial applications 244
thermodynamics 6, 57, 59, 82, 105
3D atlas 323
thulium 246, 307
(p.487) thymus atrophy 140, 217
time of flight (ToF) analyzers 328, 334, 380
tin 173, 248, 304
tributyl 189
titanium 162, 170, 258, 292
implants 260
nanorough 265
SEM micrographs 264
tobacco. See smoking
tolerable upper intake levels 83, 84, 86–89, 224
TonB dependency 24, 25, 63
toxicity 2, 37, 47, 50, 92, 115, 121, 161, 164, 205, 206, 257–260, 278, 285, 359
impact on health 240–242, 273
relationship to adiposity 185, 189, 193, 196
trace metals
anthropogenic drivers 272, 297
deficiency 1, 2, 95, 185, 193–196, 271–273, 280, 284
homeostasis 186
transcobalamin 17, 18
transcription factors 15, 57, 60, 63, 66–69, 74, 77, 100, 148, 154, 155, 211, 213, 218, 221, 266, 377
transcriptomics 117, 236, 237, 296
transferrin (Tf) 17–21, 24–28, 32, 35, 107–111, 129, 179, 203, 206, 214, 347, 373, 386, 387
receptor (TfR) 148, 151, 153, 191, 207
transgenic reporter animals 363, 364
transition metals 44, 55, 57–82, 129, 148, 158, 159, 164, 200, 208, 209, 259, 368, 370
transport 15–19, 21–24
tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle 40, 44, 64, 65, 73, 104, 114
trioxaquines 171
tropical parasitic illnesses 161–172
Trypanosoma cruzi 163–167, 225, 304
trypanosomiasis 163–165, 225, 226
tryptic digestion 9, 343, 348, 352
tuberculosis 2, 4, 84, 139, 155, 194, 208, 212, 216, 285, 287, 296, 339, 373
tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α‎) 153, 179, 191, 194, 211, 213, 267, 284
tungsten 49, 55, 231, 316, 321
content in E. coli 41
two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) 312, 313, 317, 346, 347, 375
ultra-microtomy 324
upper intake levels (UIL) 86, 87
tolerable 83, 84, 86–89, 224
upper respiratory tract 2, 26, 27, 35, 37, 107, 111
uptake 13–28, 39, 43, 100
uranium 175, 252, 305, 315
urease 45, 47, 49, 105, 182, 367
urinary tract infection 21, 34, 52
uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) 52
utilization 17, 24, 32, 39, 43, 52, 58, 92, 118, 129
vaccination 4, 37, 296, 361
influenza 188
malaria 169
relationship to obesity 187, 188
vanadium 49, 55, 126, 137–139, 146, 165, 183, 200, 225, 258, 287, 303
content in E. coli 41
vitamin B12 14, 16, 18, 22, 23, 25, 44, 127, 144, 177, 200, 204
vitamin C 128, 136, 195
vitamin E 195, 222, 223, 234, 276
washout of soluble analytes 334–336, 348
wax moth larvae infection model 30, 31
whole body imaging 374
Wilson disease 95, 128, 178, 204, 387
xenosiderophores 30, 115
(p.488) X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) 312, 319, 320, 324, 328, 329, 334
X-ray emission techniques 329–331, 350, 385, 400
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) 103, 312, 319, 320, 324, 330, 333, 334, 344, 349, 350
benchtop 323, 332
synchrotron radiation 319, 322
xyz stage 324, 325
yellow fever 288
yersiniabactin (Ybt) 21, 34–36, 46, 52, 110, 111
Yersinia enterocolitica 111, 391
Yersinia pestis 35, 36, 111, 115
ytterbium 246, 307
yttrium 241, 246, 272, 293, 294, 305
zebrafish 112, 118, 377
zinc 32, 44, 45, 57, 60, 61, 76–82, 125, 133–135, 138, 146, 183, 192, 204, 216–223, 259, 301, 355
autometallography 332, 381
bioavailability 93, 117
content in E. coli 41
deficiency 3, 5, 7, 78, 83, 134–136, 194, 200, 219, 273, 291, 373
impact on As toxicity 236
in infant formulas 290
RDA 86, 126, 223
relationship to obesity 190, 195
relative bioavailability 93
supplementation 4, 30, 38, 83, 134, 139, 157, 184, 218–221
therapeutic uses 219–221
tolerable upper intake levels 90
toxicity 78, 110, 259
zinc finger proteins 45, 231, 351, 369
zincosomes 103, 109
zinc transporters 19, 31, 32, 111, 134, 157, 184, 196, 207, 216, 222
Zip4 16, 117, 373
ZntR 42, 60, 61, 77, 81
Zur 42, 43, 77, 80, 81, 377