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Artificial Chemistries$
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Wolfgang Banzhaf and Lidia Yamamoto

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780262029438

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262029438.001.0001

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Self-Organization and Emergent Phenomena

Self-Organization and Emergent Phenomena

(p.287) Chapter 14 Self-Organization and Emergent Phenomena
Artificial Chemistries

Wolfgang Banzhaf

Lidia Yamamoto

The MIT Press

Here we study self-organization, which refers to a class of systems that are able to form and maintain their organization by themselves. Related to self-organization (and sometimes mixed with it) is the term emergent phenomena which encompasses the observation of phenomena that come about by self-organization. Both terms emphasize different characteristics of a systems behavior, but they appear often together. We start with laying out examples of self-organization. We then delve into the fascinating topic of the emergence of phenomena which are found everywhere around us. The last two sections are devoted to explain how the mechanism of emergence could work with a particular emphasis on top-down causation.

Keywords:   Benard convection, Chaos, Emergence, Hierarchy theory, Hyperstructures, Non-equilibrium thermodynamics, Scale, Self-organized criticality, Synergetics, Top-down causation

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