- Title Pages
- Chapter 1 Introduction
- Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Artificial Chemistries
- Chapter 3 The Matrix Chemistry as an Example
- Chapter 4 Computing Chemical Reactions
- Chapter 5 The Chemistry of Life
- Chapter 6 The Essence of Life
- Chapter 7 Evolution
- Chapter 8 Complexity and Open-Ended Evolution
- Chapter 9 Rewriting Systems
- Chapter 10 Automata and Machines
- Chapter 11 Bio-inspired Artificial Chemistries
- Chapter 12 The Structure of Organizations
- Chapter 13 The Dynamics of Organizations
- Chapter 14 Self-Organization and Emergent Phenomena
- Chapter 15 Constructive Dynamical Systems
- Chapter 16 Applications of Artificial Chemistries
- Chapter 17 Computing with Artificial Chemistries
- Chapter 18 Modeling Biological Systems
- Chapter 19 Wet Artificial Chemistries
- Chapter 20 Beyond Chemistry and Biology
- Chapter 21 Summary and Perspectives
- Further Reading
- Appendix: Setting up Your Own Artificial Chemistry System
- Author Index
- Subject Index
- (p.181) Chapter 9 Rewriting Systems
- Artificial Chemistries
- The MIT Press
This chapter provides an overview of a large class of artificial chemistries, formal rewriting systems. A brief introduction explains the general concept of rewriting or production systems. We then explore the classical lambda calculus which was used as an early example of an AC. Further sections are devoted to an AC computer language, Gamma, and the chemical abstract machine formalism. Other examples of ACs follow, among them the chemical rewriting system on multisets, P systems, and MGS. The chapter concludes with a short discussion of other formal calculi inspired by a chemical metaphor and an explanation of how L systems and other rewriting systems would fit into the category of Artificial Chemistries.
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