Conservation measures usually require some reduction in fishing effort or catch and so are not politically expedient except when used to indirectly exclude less powerful groups of fishers. This chapter documents the long history of delayed conservation response, starting with the serial depletion of salmon and other coastal and anadromous stocks globally in the 19th century. It then shows how the debunking of early claims in support of exclusionary management lead to a period of deregulation just as industrialized fishing fleets started to grow around the turn of the century. This facilitated rapid overexploitation that led to increasing calls for management by the middle of the 20th century and, ultimately, the widespread adoption of the “fishing up to MSY” policy that formalized responsive governance in many parts of the world. The final section deals with issues of monitoring and enforcement, which became more difficult with the growth of fishing fleets described in Part I.
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