While genuine conservation measures tend to be a last resort the increasing number of fisheries crises in the 2nd half of the 20th century led to numerous innovations in fisheries management and the establishment of relatively effective institutions. This chapter describes the forces that fostered increased political action by non-commercial forces, the resulting period of conflict and gradual formation of coalitions to solve major problems in specific fisheries. It covers the politics of protecting charismatic megafauna, “rationalizing” fisheries through establishment of property rights, and the development of alternatives to MSY. Legitimacy and the need for co-management are also discussed in the final section.
Keywords: Non-commercial interests, epistemic communities, charismatic megafauna, by-catch, individual tradable quotas, space based management, ecosystem based management, precautionary approach, marine protected areas, co-management, legitimacy
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