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Plantations and Protected AreasA Global History of Forest Management$
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Brett M. Bennett

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780262029933

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262029933.001.0001

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Native Forests: From Multiple-Use to Protected Areas

Native Forests: From Multiple-Use to Protected Areas

(p.99) 3 Native Forests: From Multiple-Use to Protected Areas
Plantations and Protected Areas

Brett M. Bennett

The MIT Press

This chapter examines how ideas about forest management changed from the nineteenth to the late twentieth centuries in response to the expanding idea of “naturalness.” In the nineteenth century, foresters dominated scientific research on forest systems. Some foresters began to criticize forestry management schemes because of their aesthetic and biological consequences. These criticisms expanded in the first half of the twentieth century as researchers in the fields of hydrology, wildlife biology, and ecology undermined key assumptions about forest conservation. The expansion of clear-felling as a harvesting method after World War II fueled public conflicts over the management of state-controlled forests in countries such as the United States, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and India. Deforestation caused by economic growth in developing countries created controversy as well. In response to social pressure, governments in many countries began to set aside large native forests as protected areas that would preserve the biological and ecological integrity of forests. The decline of harvesting from protected areas was offset by the increase in plantation-growth timber domestically and globally.

Keywords:   Clear-felling, Ecology, Environmentalism, Endangered Species, Social Protest, Protected Areas, World Heritage

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