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Plantations and Protected AreasA Global History of Forest Management$
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Brett M. Bennett

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780262029933

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262029933.001.0001

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Introduction: The Forest Management Divergence

Introduction: The Forest Management Divergence

(p.1) Introduction: The Forest Management Divergence
Plantations and Protected Areas

Brett M. Bennett

The MIT Press

This chapter introduces the concept of the forest management divergence to analyze the separation of timber production from the protection of forest biodiversity that has occurred globally in the second half of the twentieth century. It argues that contemporary ecological and forest policy problems, such as the production of cheap wood fibre from developing tropical countries and conflicts over logging in native forests, must be seen as a result of this process. The chapter emphasizes that plantations and protected areas developed out of an earlier conservation model, which integrated environmental management with production. The conservation model spread globally from the mid 19th century until the mid 20th century, before gradually falling into decline due to the growth of plantations and protected areas from the 1980s until today. The chapter frames the global history of forest management as an interaction between human attempts to regulate forests and the constraints that shaped the outcome of these events. It suggests that many historians have given too much emphasis to the history of forestry ideas without recognizing the limitations that shaped forest management outcomes. Finally, the chapter defines the terms “plantation,” “semi-natural forest,” and “native forest” as they are used in the book.

Keywords:   Environmental history, Global history, Globalization, Forestry, Native forests, Plantations, Protected Areas

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