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Between Preservation and ExploitationTransnational Advocacy Networks and Conservation in Developing Countries$
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Kemi Fuentes-George

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780262034289

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262034289.001.0001

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Egypt and the Migratory Soaring Birds Project

Egypt and the Migratory Soaring Birds Project

(p.135) 4 Egypt and the Migratory Soaring Birds Project
Between Preservation and Exploitation

Kemi Fuentes-George

The MIT Press

This chapter describes the threats to biodiversity posed by tourism and wind energy development in the Egyptian Red Sea/Rift Valley Flyway addressed by the project titled the Project for Sustainable Conservation of Migratory Soaring Birds. It shows how a transnational network attempted to advocate for biodiversity conservation alongside local communities of Bedouins and policymakers in the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA), the Tourist Development Authority (TDA), and the Nature Conservation Sector. This chapter also points out the constricting influence of closed political systems. The Egyptian autocratic system is far more closed to civil society influence than in the other countries, limiting the possibility for socialization between network members and policymakers. Since socialization is crucial in building network influence, this case argues that closed or undemocratic political systems are barriers to network influence. In the end, the chapter shows how the Egyptian state captured the GEF project, distributing funds and conducting project activities in a way that has been opaque to the civil society and has not led to civil society participation in natural resource management.

Keywords:   Biodiversity, Tourism, Development, Red Sea, Autocratic system, Civil society, Undemocratic

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