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Ecuador's Environmental RevolutionsEcoimperialists, Ecodependents, and Ecoresisters$
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Tammy L. Lewis

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780262034296

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: January 2017

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262034296.001.0001

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Citizens’ Revolution, 2006 to 2015

Citizens’ Revolution, 2006 to 2015

The Rise of the Paradoxical State

Chapter:
(p.163) 7 Citizens’ Revolution, 2006 to 2015
Source:
Ecuador's Environmental Revolutions
Author(s):

Tammy L. Lewis

Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:10.7551/mitpress/9780262034296.003.0007

This chapter examines the sweeping changes that have taken place since President Rafael Correa came to power as part of the socialist “Citizens’ Revolution” to transform the state from a weak agent into a strong and effective actor. In this process, the environmental sector changed. First, international agents, such as USAID, lessened their involvement in Ecuador and others, such as Conservation International, shifted their focus from ecodependents to the state. Second, environmental leaders moved from the non-profit sector into the government. Third, ecodependent groups lost power and many closed due to fiscal concerns. Finally, many of the ecoresisters’ ideas were incorporated into the state, such as constitutional rights for nature and the Yasuní-ITT Initiative. However, as the state seeks to honor its promise to lift its people out of poverty, it has done so through resource extraction. Ecoresisters are now battling against the state rather than the transnational corporations they fought in the past and the state is limiting their civil liberties. This final case chapter looks at the role of various types of civil society groups in altering (or not altering) the state’s choices, and discusses the potential for democratic practices to slow the treadmill of production.

Keywords:   Rafael Correa, Citizens’ Revolution, USAID, Conservation International, Ecodependents, Ecoresisters, Constitutional rights for nature, Yasuní-ITT, Civil liberties, Treadmill of production

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