This chapter reviews the theory of normative reframing that is at the heart of the book’s explanation for sudden policy change, and the evidence of normative reframing’s role in the unprecedented policy shift toward auctioning emissions allowances from 2008-2015. It then offers some concluding thoughts on the wider implications of the expansion of auctions since RGGI, and the theory of normative reframing for climate and environmental policymaking, as well as for understanding sudden policy change in general. In particular, the chapter concludes that the choice of how to distribute benefits from future climate policies will be the most important factor determining the political success of those policies, and that policies such as cap and trade with auction using public benefit framing remain the most promising policy option going forward.
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