Knowledge becomes implicated in rationality in two different ways. When the knowledge bases discussed in Chapter 9 are missing, the problem is called a mindware gap. A different type of mindware problem arises because some acquired mindware can be the direct cause of irrational actions that thwart our goals. This type of problem has been termed the problem of contaminated mindware. Four subtests of the CART assess contaminated mindware: the Superstitious Thinking subtest; Antiscience Attitudes subtest; Conspiracy Beliefs subtest; and Dysfunctional Personal Beliefs subtest. The history of each subtest is described, as well as a large study of each subtest in which correlations with cognitive ability and thinking dispositions are examined. Correlations among these subtests themselves are reported.
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