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The End of OwnershipPersonal Property in the Digital Economy$

Aaron Perzanowski and Jason Schultz

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780262035019

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: May 2017

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262035019.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM MIT PRESS SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.mitpress.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright The MIT Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in MITSO for personal use. Subscriber: null; date: 23 October 2019

(p.241) Index

(p.241) Index

Source:
The End of Ownership
Publisher:
The MIT Press
321 Studios v. MGM Studios, Inc., 225
ABC v. Aereo, 45
ACLU v. Gonzales, 223
Adams v. Burke, 157, 162, 232
Adobe, 7, 55, 59–60, 115
Airbnb, 169, 171, 180
Akerlof, George A., 207
Alamogordo, NM, 25
Alphabet, 141
Alpo Petfoods, Inc. v. Ralston Purina Co., 213
Alschuler, Albert W., 199
Am. Exp. Co. v. Italian Colors Rest., 213
Amazon
Kindle, 1–5, 39–40, 45, 48–51, 54, 62, 93, 122
1984 incident, 1–2, 43, 93, 114
American Library Association (ALA), 104–105, 218–219
American Royalties Too (ART) Act, 187
Anderson, Chris, 225
Andreessen, Marc, 239
Android, 93, 143
Apache, 71
Apple
App Store, 61, 141
Fairplay DRM, 122, 133–134
iBook, 93, 177, 183
iCloud, 42
iOS, 93, 141, 143
iPad, 94
iPhone, 10, 62, 94, 141–143
iPod, 38, 42, 133–34, 141
iTunes, 20, 35, 39–43, 54, 59, 84, 93, 122, 133–134, 186
Watch, 4
Archives, 103, 111–114, 118
Armstrong, Herbert, 113
Aro Mfg. Co. v. Convertible Top Replacement Co., 228
Astrachan, James B., 214
AT&T, 141–142, 160
AT&T Mobility LLC v. Concepcion, 213
Atari, 25
Atkinson, George, 30
Audio Home Recording Act (AHRA), 130
Augusto, Troy, 75–76
Author’s Guild v. Google, Inc., 222
Automaker’s Alliance, 147
Autonomy, 10–11, 24, 104, 121, 123, 137, 148, 151, 154, 170
Bakos, Yannis, 207
Barbie, 150–151, 230
Barnes & Noble, 116
Nook, 93–94
Barrett, Brian, 150, 230
Basheer, Shamnad, 201
Beachbody, 30, 202
Beatles, 52
Beats, 49
(p.242) Beck, 51
Bell, Alexander Graham, 141
Bell Telephone. See AT&T
Bentham, Jeremy, 239
Bernard of Chartres, 145
Bernasek, Anna, 210
Bernays, Edward, 104
Betamax, 11, 201
BitTorrent, 97
Blackstone, William, 20, 199
Blitz, Marc, 222
Blizzard, 135
Block chain, 189–191
Blockbuster, 31, 51, 202, 205
Bloomer v. McQuewan, 156, 162, 167, 232
Blu-ray, BD+ DRM used on, 133
Bluestone, Marisa, 204
Bobbs-Merrill Co. v. Straus, 27, 200
Boesch v. Graff, 164–165
Borghi, Maurizio, 203
Boston Public Library, 108, 217–218
Boucher, Rick, 178, 186
Bowman v. Monsanto Co., 163, 228
Bradbury, Ray, 121, 123
Brambilla, Marco, 231
Brantley, Peter, 87, 196, 212
Breaux, Travis, 217
Bridge, Catherine, 215
Brooks, Garth, 30, 51–52
Bundle of rights. See Property
Burke & Van Heusen, Inc. v. Arrow Drug, Inc., 237
Buy Now button
consumer perception of, 2, 39, 90–101, 174–175, 180
used by Amazon, 77, 84
used by Apple, 77
Byrne, David, 51
Cablevision, 47
California Reader Privacy Act, 104
Camfield v. City of Okla., 197
Campbell, Joseph, 199
Capitol Records, LLC v. ReDigi Inc., 204
Carterphone, 142
Cartoon Network LP, LLLP v. CSC Holdings, Inc., 47, 204
Carver, Brian W., 210
Chafee, Zechariah Jr., 198, 233
Chamberlain v. Skylink, 137, 138, 226, 236
Charles of the Ritz Distribs. Corp. v. FTC, 214
Cheney, Dick, 153
Chrome, 61, 208
Chrysler, 147, 229
Circumvention, 131–133, 138, 142, 156, 176–177
City of Los Angeles v. Patel, 223
Clark, John Willis, 117
Clemens v. Estes, 200
Cloud computing, 42
Coase, R. H., 197
Coca-Cola Co. v. Procter & Gamble Co., 213
Cohen, Julie E., 196
Colligan v. Activities Club of N.Y., 213
ComiXology, 85
Common law, 74, 156, 159, 165, 167–168, 178–179, 182
Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA), 236
Computer Software Copyright Act of 1980, 204
Computer Software Rental Amendments Act, 31
Contracts
consideration, 66
duty to read, 70, 174
formation, 65–70
unconscionability, 69, 174–175
Consumer surplus, 80
(p.243) Content Scramble System (CSS), 127–128
DeCSS, 131–132
Copy/work distinction, 36–38
Copyright Act
section 109, 73, 168, 179
section 117, 42, 63–64, 73, 129, 163, 177, 179, 183
Copyright Office, 107, 131, 142–148, 153, 186, 238
Corley, Eric, 132
Craigslist, 10, 33
Cranor, Lorrie Faith, 217
Crawford, Kate, 153, 231
Cryptography, 125, 128, 190
De Mattos v. Gibson, 198
Davidson & Assoc. v. Jung, 226
De Sousa, Yannick Ferreira, 206
Deceptive advertising. See False advertising
Diamond v. Diehr, 209
Dick, Philip K., 139
Digital audio tape (DAT), 130
Digital downloads, 3, 35, 38–39, 42–43, 48, 53–54, 109
Digital Era Copyright Enhancement Act, 178
Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), 130–133, 137–140, 144, 146, 148, 176–178
impact on research, 132–138
Digital Public Library of America, 117
Digital Rights Management (DRM), 4, 6, 121–123, 128–132, 146–150
failure of, 123–128, 132–146
DiscoVision, 127
Disney, 9, 24, 30, 126–127, 197
Doan v. Am. Book Co., 200
Doctorow, Cory, 134, 206, 220, 224–226
Douglas, Justice William O., 115
DSC Commec’ns Corp. v. DGI Techs., 210
Dudamel, Gustavo, 109
DVD Copy Control Ass’n, Inc. v. Kaleid-escape, 224
Dye, Skip, 110
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, 25
Easterbrook, Frank, 67–70, 79
eBay, 10, 26, 28, 30, 63, 75, 184, 190
Edison, Thomas, 158–160, 162
Eisenberg, Melvin Aron, 209
Eisenstein, Elizabeth L., 203
Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF), 142
Elverum, Phil, 51
Eminem, 62
End user license agreement (EULA)
complexity of, 59–62
as contracts, 65–71
origins of, 62–65
length of, 59, 71
as property transactions, 71–74
Engle, Mary Koelbel, 221
Equitable servitudes, 16
Exhaustion
as an affirmative defense, 28–36
common law origins of, 24–28
first sale doctrine, 25, 27–31, 40, 51, 107, 157, 178–179
patent exhaustion, 156–168, 177–178 (see Patents)
single recovery theory, 159
trademark exhaustion, 199
Externalities, 8–9, 15, 21, 24, 171
Facebook, 78, 95, 150
Fair use, 24, 105, 111, 112–113, 118, 126, 143, 177, 179, 182–183
Fairfield, Joshua A. T., 191, 199, 238, 239
FairPlay DRM. See Apple
False advertising, 83–90, 97–98
(p.244) Farenthold, Blake, 178
F.B.T. Prods. v. Aftermath Records, 209
Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
FTC Act, 87–90, 174–175
Feist Publ’ns, Inc. v. Rural Tel. Serv. Co., 199
Feldman, Lauren, 211
Felten, Ed, 133, 135
Ferrari, 146, 148
Ferris v. Frohman, 203
Firestone Tire & Rubber Co. v. FTC, 214
First sale doctrine. See Exhaustion
Fitbit, 4, 153, 231
Fixation, 18, 37, 40
Ford Motor Company, 146–148, 235
Forward and delete technology, 186, 188
Franklin, Benjamin, 95, 103
Free software, 71, 149
Free Software Foundation, 230
Freeman, Andrea, 211
French, Brian, 217
Fry, Richard, 234
GameStop, 31
Garage door openers, 137–143
Gasser, Urs, 218–219
Gates, Bill, 124
General Motors (GM), 71, 146, 229
General Talking Pictures v. Western Electric, 160
Gifts, 75, 94, 98, 180–181, 183
GNU General Public License (GPL), 71
Goblin property, 17, 187
Godwin, Mike, 125, 130
Good, Nathaniel, 217
Google, 61, 78, 95, 117–118, 140–141, 151
Gordon, Wendy, 211
Grannis, Amanda, 217
Grassley, Chuck, 236
Greenberg, Joshua M., 201
Greenwald, Glenn, 197
Grimmelmann, James, 238
Grossklags, Jens, 217
Grove Press v. Gerstein, 196
Gutenberg, Johannes, 36, 38, 203
Hamlet, 59
HarperCollins, 109
Harrison v. Maynard, Merrill & Co., 200
HathiTrust, 117, 224
Hegel, Georg, 22
HeinOnline, 86, 212
Hesse, Thomas, 136
Higgins, Parker, 230
Hoofnagle, Chris Jay, 214
Houweling, Molly Shaffer Van, 198
Huang, Andrew “bunnie,” 227
Hulu, 48–49
Humphrey, Watts S., 209
Hush-A-Phone Corp. v. United States, 227
IBM, 40, 62–63
Image Comics, 85–86, 212
In re Cliffdale Assocs., Inc., 214
Information costs, 7–10, 17–21, 74, 81, 187–190
Infringement, 12, 22, 27, 40, 45, 47, 50, 75, 97, 118, 123, 130, 155, 162, 164, 176–179, 183–185
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 186
Intangible property. See Property
Intellectual property, 11–19, 24–26, 62–63, 71, 75, 111, 173
Internet Archive, 117
Internet of Things (IoT), 13, 135, 140–141, 145, 150, 152, 157
Interview, The, 9, 197
Isbell, Jason, 51
Iyengar, Sheena S., 211
(p.245) Jailbreaking, 141–143
Jazz Photo Corp. v. International Trade Commission, 164
Jeep. See Chrysler, 147
Jefferson, Thomas, 19, 95, 199
Jobs, Steve, 133, 141, 143, 225
Johansen, Jon, 131–133
John Deere (Deere & Company), 144–146, 167
John D. Park & Sons Co. v. Hartman, 198
John Wiley & Sons, 28–29, 78–79, 159, 178, 200, 233
Johnson & Johnson v. Smithkline Bee-cham Corp., 213
Johnson v. M’Intosh, 239
Jonnes, Jill, 233
Kahneman, Daniel, 206
Katz v. United States, 222
Katz, Ariel, 200, 234
Keeler v. Standard Folding-Bed Co., 157, 162
Kemmler, William, 158
Keurig, 4, 10, 149–150
Kidizoom, 151
Kim, Nancy S., 208
Kindle. See Amazon
Kipling v. G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 200
Kirtsaeng v. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 159, 178, 200, 233
Konstan, Joseph, 217
Korngold, Gerald, 198
Lamont v. Postmaster Gen., 222
Lanham Act, 87–88, 212–213
Lardner, James, 201
Leahy, Patrick, 179, 236
Leibrand, Scott, 152–153
Lemley, Mark, 67, 209
Lepper, Mark R., 211
Lewis, Dana, 152
Lexmark
Lexmark v. Impression Products, 155, 167, 177
Lexmark v. Static Control Components (SCC), 138, 213, 226, 232
Libraries
dependence on ebook vendors, 108, 111, 115
restrictions on lending, 106–107
shift to digital collections, 108–111
Library Company of Philadelphia, 103
Licensed secondary markets, 63
Lichtenberg, Frank R., 233
Liebesman, Yvette Joy, 199
Linux 131–132
Litman, Jessica, 235
Liu, Katy K., 217
Locke, John, 22, 199
Lockout, 129
Los Angeles Philharmonic, 109
Luke Records, Inc. v. Navarro, 197
Macbeth, 59, 71
Made in the USA Found. v. Phillips Foods, Inc., 213
MAI v. Peak, 47
Maisel, William H., 232
Major League Baseball (MLB), 6
Malarkey, Alex, 114
Mallinckrodt v. Medipart, 160–162, 233
Market for lemons, 60
Market segmentation, 29,166
Marotta-Wurgler, Florencia, 207, 215
Masnick, Mike, 207–208
Mattel. See Barbie
McGraw-Hill, 29
McNeilab, Inc. v. Am. Home Prods. Corp., 214
MDY Indus. LLC v. Blizzard Entm’t, Inc., 226
(p.246) MediaShop study, 90–101
Medical devices, 141, 152–154
Meltzer, Kimberly, 211
Mercedes Benz, 146–147, 229
Merrill, Thomas W., 197, 233
MGE UPS Sys. Inc. v. GE Consumer & Indus., 236
Microsoft
MSN Music, 6
Xbox, 3, 10, 32, 94, 142
Zune, 133
Miles Med. Co. v. John D. Park & Sons Co., 198
Miller, Henry, 196
Miller, James C., 214
Moglen, Eben, 71, 210
Mongan, D. T., 210
Monsanto 144, 163
Bowman v. Monsanto, 163, 228
Monsanto Canada Inc. v. Schmeiser, 228
Morewedge, Carey K., 206
Morrison, Heather, 201
Motion Picture Patents Co. v. Universal Film Mfg. Co., 233
MSN Music. See Microsoft
Mulligan, Christina, 185, 198, 237
Mulligan, Deirdre, 217, 226
Munro, Alistair, 206
Museums, 25–26, 73–74, 111, 117
Napster, 32, 124
Narayanan, Arvind, 238
National Security Agency (NSA), 7, 116
National Telecommunication and Information Administration (NTIA), 148, 238
Nest, 140–141, 151
Netflix, 5–6, 13, 21, 35, 48–51, 75, 81, 98, 169, 172–173,
New York Public Library (NYPL), 117
Newman, Chris, 210
Newton, Isaac, 145, 228
Nintendo, 31
Nook. See Barnes & Noble
Novartis Consumer Health, Inc. v. Johnson & Johnson-Merck Consumer Pharms. Co., 214
Nygaard, Linn, 2–3
O’Brien, David R., 218–219
O’Reilly Media, 87
Obama, President Barack, 143, 228
OverDrive, 86, 108–109, 118
Ownership, distinguishing licenses from sales, 64, 74–81
Oxford English Dictionary, 55
P90X. See Beachbody
Pacemaker, 1, 140, 152–153
Palfrey, John, 217–219
Pallante, Maria, 173, 235
Parfums Givenchy, Inc. v. C & C Beauty Sales, Inc., 237
Parton v. Prang, 203
Patents
international exhaustion, 164–165, 167–168
post-sale restrictions, 13, 156–157, 162–163, 167–168
self-replicating technologies, 163, 168
Pfizer, 166
Pharmaceuticals, 166
Phillips, Douglas E., 207
Phlips, Louis, 80, 211
Pigou, Arthur, 197
Pirate Bay, The, 12, 50, 97, 198
Platt & Munk Co. v. Republic Graphics, Inc., 236
PlayStation. See Sony
Pollio, Marie C., 217
POM Wonderful, LLC. v. FTC, 214
Pope v. Curl, 203
Pope, Alexander, 37
Popken, Ben, 201
Preemption, 176
(p.247) Preservation, 9–10, 27, 42, 55, 105, 111–113, 135
Pretty Good Privacy (PGP), 190
Price discrimination, 5–6, 29, 67, 77–81, 162, 166–167
Price, Rob, 227
Printers, 137–139, 155–156, 167
Privacy, 7, 43, 104–105, 110, 114–117, 151, 153, 170, 187, 192
ProCD v. Zeidenberg, 67–68, 77, 209
Profit margins, 29, 94
Project Cicero, 118–119, 224
Property
bundle of rights, 21–23, 83
intangible property, 44–45, 191
personal property, 2, 12–13, 15–27, 30, 32, 38, 44–45, 53, 74, 84, 97, 103, 108, 121, 127, 138, 156, 189, 192–193
real property, 15–16, 23
restraints on alienation, 158–159
servitudes on chattels, 16–17, 27
Public goods, 19
Pushman v. New York Graphic Society, 203
Quanta Computer, Inc. v. LG Electronics, Inc., 162–163, 178, 233
Radin, Margaret Jane, 209
Radiohead, 52
Rajec, Sarah R. Wasserman, 233
RAM copy doctrine, 46
Random House, 6, 86–87, 110
Reader Privacy Act, 117, 222
RealNetworks, 131, 134
Harmony, 134
Redbox, 7, 21
ReDigi, 40–41, 185
Reese, R. Anthony, 196, 219
Reidenberg, Joel R., 217
Remote Storage Digital Video Recorder (RS-DVR), 47
Repair, 1, 4, 6, 26, 103, 135, 139, 144–148, 154, 157, 179
Resale Royalty Act, 187
Restraints on alienation. See Property
Reverse engineering, 61, 72, 129, 131, 138
Revolv, 140–141
Reyes, Emily Alpert, 234
Richards, Neil, 104, 218
Right of First Refusal Agreement. See Ferrari
Right to Repair law, 147
Riley v. California, 222, 226
Riva, Paolo, 231
Roberts, Chief Justice John, 60, 140
Robinson, Glen O., 198
Rogers, Fred, 11, 126
Rootkit, 136–137, 226
Rose, Mark, 203
Rothchild, John A., 233
Rowling, J.K., 17, 187, 199
Rub, Guy A., 238
Russinovich, Mark, 136
Sacchi, Simona, 231
Sam Francis Foundation v. Christies, 238
Samsung, 17, 140, 151
Samuelson, Pamela, 236
Sandler, Karen, 152
Scholastic, 3
Schwartz, Barry, 211
Secondary markets, 9, 12, 27, 50, 63, 80, 111, 181, 184, 186–187
Sega v. Accolade, 129, 225
Serial Copy Management System (SCMS), 130
Sharing economy, 169–171
(p.248) Shaver, Leah, 200
Sheffner, Ben, 215
Shelley v. Kraemer, 198
Short notice, 90, 99–101, 174
Sidhu, Dawinder S., 223
Silver-Greenberg, Jessica, 208, 229, 231
Simpsons, The, 54, 206
Skyywalker Records, Inc. v. Navarro, 197
Sleepsense, 140
Smart cow problem, 125, 131, 133
Smith v. Maryland, 222
Smith, Henry E., 197, 233
Smith, Kevin, 109, 206, 220
Software
backup copies, 61, 125, 129,
licenses, 71
ownership of copies, 63
rental of, 31, 63–65
Song of the South, 9, 197
Sony
PlayStation, 3, 10, 48, 62, 94
Sony Corp. of Am. v. Universal City Studios, Inc., 126–127, 198, 202
Sperb, Jason, 197
Spotify, 5, 13, 38, 48–53, 98, 169–172
State St. Bank and Trust Co. v. Signature Fin. Grp., Inc., 209
Stationers Company, 36
Statute of Anne, 36
Stephens v. Cady, 37, 203
Storage Tech. Corp. v. Custom Hardware Eng’g & Consulting, Inc., 236
Storia, 3
Straus v. Victor Talking Mach. Co., 158, 162
Streaming, 3, 5, 35, 46–54, 97, 117, 131,
Striphas, Ted, 104, 218
Subscription services, 3, 13, 31, 97, 172
growth of, 48–54
Sweazey, Paul, 238
Swift, Taylor, 52–53, 205
Taddy & Co. v. Sterious & Co., 198
Tattered Cover, Inc. v. City of Thornton, 222
Telebrands Corp. v. Media Grp., Inc., 214
Tesla, Nikola, 158
Textbooks, 28–29, 166
Thaw, David, 217
Theberge v. Galerie d’Art du Petit Champlain Inc., 204
Tiffany (NJ) Inc. v. eBay, Inc., 237
Tom Kabinet, 184–185
Toyota, 17
ToyTalk, 150–151
Tractors, 144–146
Trademarks, 18, 62, 83, 87, 189
Trademark Security System (TMSS), 129
Transaction costs, 8, 69, 170, 183
Trossen, David R., 207, 215
Turow, Joseph, 211
Twain, Mark, 26
Twentieth Century Music Corp. v. Aiken, 201
Uber, 169–171
UMG Recordings v. Augusto, 75–76, 210
Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Directive, 175
Uniform Commercial Code (UCC), 74–75
United States v. Curtin, 223
United States v. Jones, 222
United States v. Miller, 222
United States v. Rumley, 222
United States v. Wise, 204, 210
Universal City Studios v. Corley, 225
Unlocking, 142–143
Unlocking Consumer Choice and Wireless Competition Act, 143
Unordered Merchandise Act, 210
Urban, Jennifer M., 221
UsedSoft GmbH v. Oracle, 237
(p.249) User innovation, 9–10, 27, 124, 132, 135, 142, 145–146, 176
Valenti, Jack, 126, 128, 224
van Os, Marcel, 238
Vault v. Quaid, 129
VCR, 11, 32, 37, 125–128, 131
Vernor v. Autodesk, 76
Viacom Int’l, Inc. v. Youtube, Inc., 237
Video games, 25, 31
used market for, 31–32
Video Privacy Protection Act, 104
Vinyl records, 30, 38, 53–54, 93, 172, 190
Volkswagen, 148
von Hippel, Eric, 145, 197, 225, 228
VTech, 151
Walmart, 6, 29, 31, 90, 196
Wearable technology, 4, 140
Webber, Mark, 235
Weinrib, Arnold S., 239
Westinghouse, George, 158
White-Smith v. Apollo, 47, 204
Wiens, Kyle, 145, 224, 228
William H. Morris Co. v. Group W, Inc., 214
Wilson, Benjamin, 199
Winn, Jane K., 235
Worldwide Church of God v. Philadelphia Church of God, Inc., 113
Wu-Tang Clan, 74, 210
Wyden, Ron, 196
Xbox. See Microsoft
Yahoo, 6, 43
Yorke, Thom, 51
You Own Devices Act (YODA), 178
Zuckerman, Ethan, 145, 228
Zune. See Microsoft