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Computational PsychiatryNew Perspectives on Mental Illness$
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A. David Redish and Joshua A. Gordon

Print publication date: 2016

Print ISBN-13: 9780262035422

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: May 2017

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262035422.001.0001

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Candidate Examples for a Computational Approach to Address Practical Problems in Psychiatry

Candidate Examples for a Computational Approach to Address Practical Problems in Psychiatry

Chapter:
(p.223) 12 Candidate Examples for a Computational Approach to Address Practical Problems in Psychiatry
Source:
Computational Psychiatry
Author(s):

Rosalyn Moran

Klaas Enno Stephan

Matthew Botvinick

Michael Breakspear

Cameron S. Carter

Peter W. Kalivas

P. Read Montague

Martin P. Paulus

Frederike Petzschner

Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:10.7551/mitpress/9780262035422.003.0012

Scientists and clinicians can utilize a model-based framework to develop computational approaches to psychiatric practice and bring scientific discoveries to a clinical interface. This chapter describes a general modeling perspective, which complements those derived in previous chapters, and provides distinct examples to highlight the scientific and preclinical research that can evolve out of a computational framework to offer new tools for clinical practice. It begins by reviewing areas of theoretical and modeling studies that have reached a critical mass and outlines the pathophysiological insights that have been revealed. The phasic dopamine temporal difference model shows how neurophysiological and neuroanatomical research, incorporated into a learning circuit model, provides a constrained hypothesis testing framework, related to the likely multiple mechanisms contributing to addiction. A potential application of generative models of neuroimaging measurements (dynamic causal models of EEG data) is described to predict individual treatment responses in patients with schizophrenia. The third example offers a novel approach to quantifying patient outcomes under a “recovery model” of psychiatric illness. In conclusion, consideration is given to the community efforts needed to support the validation of these and future applications.

Keywords:   Strüngmann Forum Report, biophysical models, modeling allostasis, HPA axis, addiction, dopamine, glutamate, schizophrenia

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