In the middle ages (550-1510 CE) scientific knowledge was consolidated and translated, first from Greek and Latin into Arabic and Syriac and then from Arabic and Greek into Latin. Alhazen (1020 CE) was an important Arabic speaking scholar who made important contributions to a theory of vision and of refraction. Oresme and the school of Oxford scholars were the first (1360 CE) to describe uniform acceleration graphically. Leonardo De Vinci was a prolific inventor and user of informative diagrams – one of which describes the cause of “earthshine” (1520 CE).
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