The Romantic Movement gave impetus to a process of unifying the forces of nature – an impetus that bore fruit in, especially, Oersted’s demonstraton of the magnetic effect of electrical currents (1820) and Maxwell’s theory of electromagnetism (1865). Also, during this period Sadi Carnot articulated the first version of the second law of thermodynamics (1836) while James Joule’s painstaking experimental demonstration of the mechanical equivalent of heat (1847) is an essential foundation of the first law of thermodynamics.
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