This chapter analyzes how subject expectations affect all brain measures. An expectation of pain, a difficult task, an unpleasant picture, an air puff to the face, the sound of hands clapping, a metaphorical sentence, a caress, cocaine, an exemplar of a semantic category, or the benefit of a medicine each affects brain profiles as well as the speed and accuracy of perceptions. Meanwhile, unexpected events activate many brain sites, but especially the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area, and locus ceruleus. The difference in the oscillation frequencies evoked by the event anticipated and the one that occurs may be a critical cause of these activations. The brain and psychological states generated by an unexpected event depend on its desirability and familiarity.
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