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The Cultural Nature of AttachmentContextualizing Relationships and Development$
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Heidi Keller and Kim A. Bard

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780262036900

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: May 2018

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262036900.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM MIT PRESS SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.mitpress.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright The MIT Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in MITSO for personal use.date: 24 May 2020

Primate Infancies

Primate Infancies

Causes and Consequences of Varying Care

Chapter:
(p.69) 4 Primate Infancies
Source:
The Cultural Nature of Attachment
Author(s):

Kristen Hawkes

James S. Chisholm

Lynn A. Fairbanks

Johannes Johow

Elfriede Kalcher-Sommersguter

Katja Liebal

Masako Myowa

Volker Sommer

Bernard Thierry

Barbara L. Finlay

Publisher:
The MIT Press
DOI:10.7551/mitpress/9780262036900.003.0004

Bowlby recognized that studying other primates could help identify the needs of human infants; his evolutionary perspective has had a wide impact on understanding of human development. Much more is now known about evolutionary processes and variation, within and between species. This chapter reviews aspects of evolutionary theory and primatology relevant to Bowlby’s theory of attachment. Beginning with primate phylogeny, ecological and social forces that contribute to the varieties of primate sociality are considered and some reasons canvassed that explain why primatologists do not all agree on the choice of words to describe the relationships between animals, including use of the term “attachment.” Variations and commonalities are identified and used to explore how development in human infants can be understood in terms of social relationships and maturational state at birth and weaning compared to other primates. Infant experience has long-term effects in primates other than humans. Some of that evidence is summarized and special attention is given to interactions between particular chimpanzee mothers and infants in an unusual setting, where trusting relationships between mothers and human researchers reveal variations in mothering style that appear to result from early life events, recent experience, and social context.

Keywords:   Strüngmann Forum Reports, primate phylogeny, socioecological model, primate infant handling, Bowlby’s rhesus model, human life history evolution, consequences of early experience

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