Historically, first production models were built on the basis of language deficits in patients with brain lesions, and later on the basis of speech errors in healthy people. More recently, attempts have been made to apply neuroscientific methods such as functional magnet-resonance imaging and electrocorticography during brain surgery using pictures or perceived words at controlled input to the production system. The available data suggest that language production, apart from brain structures supporting the motor act of speaking, involves Broca’s area in addition to temporal regions. There are a number of important aspects to be considered for communication that are beyond the core language system. These are contextual knowledge, known as pragmatics, as well as communicative hand gestures, which may interact with language during communication. At the neuroscientific level a number of brain regions beyond those involved in language such as the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and the temporo-parietal junction have been identified to support aspects of social communication. Concerning the interplay between meaningful gestures with language it is interesting to note that BA 44 as the main syntactic processing region remains unaffected by communicative gestures.
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