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The Targeting System of Language$
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Leonard Talmy

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780262036979

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: September 2018

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262036979.001.0001

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Environmental Cues to a Target

Environmental Cues to a Target

(p.407) 9 Environmental Cues to a Target
The Targeting System of Language

Leonard Talmy

The MIT Press

The environment is everything that extends out from the speaker in the speech-external domain and from the trigger in the speech-internal domain. Any aspect of the environment that helps a hearer determine the target is an environmental cue, though such aspects tend to diminish with increasing distance from the center. One division within this cue category is between environmental content cues and environmental structure cues. Another division is between environmental locating cues and environmental bounding cues. An environmental locating cue involves locating with respect to either a subenvironment or a Ground. In the former type, the cue helps the hearer limit her search for the target to some particular subenvironment out of the total environment. The reduction process that leads to that subenvironment can be immediate, nested, or dry. In the latter type, an environmental locating cue enables a procedure by which the hearer can perceptually or imaginally start at a particular Ground as reference point and procede to the location of the target.

Keywords:   environmental cue, eduction process, structural alignment, coreference principle, subenvironment

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