This chapter examines the descriptive problems of reduplication that have been observed in the languages of the world and offers an explicit formalism that provides a unified account of the different kinds of reduplicative systems described in the literature. It argues that there are only three kinds of reduplication: simple, partial, and augmented. Simple reduplication copies a single sequence of segments in a word, while partial and augmented reduplication copy a single sequence of segments. Partial and augmented reduplication are examples of simple reduplication, in which deletions (partial reduplication) or additions (augmented reduplication) occur at the edges of the copied strings. The chapter proposes a framework where brackets are inserted around a segment sequence by readjustment rules linked to a morpheme that is perhaps otherwise phonetically null. In this approach, reduplications sometimes interact with other rules of the phonology or morphology. An account of metathesis is implicit in the formalism for partial reduplication.
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