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Toward Sustainable CommunitiesTransition and Transformations in Environmental Policy$
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Daniel A. Mazmanian and Michael E. Kraft

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780262134927

Published to MIT Press Scholarship Online: August 2013

DOI: 10.7551/mitpress/9780262134927.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM MIT PRESS SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.mitpress.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright The MIT Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in MITSO for personal use.date: 02 July 2022

The Three Epochs of the Environmental Movement

The Three Epochs of the Environmental Movement

(p.3) 1 The Three Epochs of the Environmental Movement
Toward Sustainable Communities

Daniel A. Mazmanian

Michael E. Kraft

The MIT Press

This chapter discusses the three epochs around which the book is organized. The first begins largely in the early 1970s with the rise of environmentalism as a social and political movement in the United States and the buildup of the system of federal command-and-control environmental regulation, with its hallmark clean air, clean water, toxics and hazardous waste legislation, creation of the U.S. EPA, and strong federal presence. The second epoch is marked by the drive for efficiency and flexibility in the regulatory apparatus created in the first epoch. The third epoch brings into focus the potentiality of sustainable development and sustainable communities as we project further into the twenty-first century. An overview of the subsequent chapters is also presented.

Keywords:   environmental protection, environmental policy, regulatory framework, sustainable development, environmentalism, United States

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