This chapter provides an overview of the “neuroscience” component of the “computational neuroscience” synergy. It begins with a discussion of three ideas about levels in nervous systems: levels of analysis, levels of organization, and levels of processing. Levels of organization are essentially anatomical, and refer to a hierarchy of components and to structures that comprise these components. Levels of processing are physiological, and refer to the location of a process relative to the transducers and muscles. Levels of analysis are conceptual, and refer to different kinds of questions asked about how the brain performs a task. The chapter proceeds by considering seven categories of structural organization in nervous systems: systems, topographic maps, layers and columns, local networks, neurons, synapses, and molecules. It concludes by presenting a short list of brain facts.
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