This chapter explores the use of aircraft to spray organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). It begins by tracing the origins of the practice in KwaZulu, South Africa, where ndege were adopted for pesticide spraying because of their ease of use, capacity for large-scale coverage, very few personnel required, and capability to reach mpukane habitats otherwise inaccessible by ground spraying. The second section examines the technical aspects of aerial spraying as an example of the extension of methods designed in the United States for agricultural or military purposes to deal with zvipukanana and with conditions for which they were not originally designed. In the final sections, the deployment and performance of first fixed-wing aircraft and then helicopters are closely examined.
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